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1. B 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. A 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. C. 11. C 12. D 13. A 14. B 15. A 16. D 17. B 18. C 19. A 20. D. Practice Quiz Answers. Characteristics of the model. Competence Past success/reputation Status Power

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practice quiz answers
1. B

2. D

3. B

4. B

5. D

6. A

7. C

8. A

9. B

10. C

11. C

12. D

13. A

14. B

15. A

16. D

17. B

18. C

19. A

20. D

Practice Quiz Answers
characteristics of the model
Characteristics of the model
  • Competence
  • Past success/reputation
  • Status
  • Power
  • Relationship or similarities to the observer
  • Multiple models
characteristics of the observer
Characteristics of the observer
  • Attention
  • Cognitive skills
  • Clear goals/objectives
  • Relationship or similarities to the model
  • Sometimes: Low self-esteem

Lack of confidence

characteristics of the modeled behavior
Characteristics of the modeled behavior
  • Relevance
  • Outcome
    • Reward or punishment equally effective
    • Often overrides the effects of the model and observer
    • Children initially exhibit high rates of nonrewarded imitations

“If knowledge could be acquired only through the effects of one’s own actions, the process of cognitive and social development would be greatly retarded, not to mention exceedingly tedious. The constraints of time, resources, and mobility impose severe limits on the situations and activities that can be directly explored. . . . Fortunately, most human behavior is learned by observation through modeling. By observing others, one forms rules of behavior, and on future occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Because people can learn approximately what to do through modeling before they perform any behavior, they are spared the costs and pain of faulty effort.” (Bandura, 1986, Social Foundations of Thought and Action, p. 47)


“Behavioral restraints are reduced most rapidly by moral justifications that make injurious conduct socially and personally acceptable. Analysis of televised programs reveal that violent conduct is portrayed, for the most part, as permissible, successful, and relatively clean. . . . Given that aggressive life styles are portrayed as prevalent, socially acceptable, and highly functional, it is not surprising that viewing violence is conducive to aggressive conduct.” (Bandura, 1986, Social Foundations of Thought and Action, p. 292)


“In the dramatic [television] series, which included humor, conflict, and engrossing discussions of the subjects being read, the models overcame obstacles to self-directed learning and gained progressive mastery and self-pride in their accomplishments.

“Millions of viewers watched this series faithfully. In the assessment of effects, compared to nonviewers, viewers of the dramatic series were much more informed about the national literacy program and expressed more positive attitudes about helping each other to learn. The rate of enrollment in the national self-instructional program was 99,000 in the year preceding the televised series, 840,000 during the year of the series, and 400,000 in the year following the series.” (Bandura, 1986, Social Foundations of Thought and Action, p. 147-148)