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Plant cell structure plant cells are eukaryotic cells , and have - a plasma membrane - a nucleus - a cytoplasm PowerPoint Presentation
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Plant cell structure plant cells are eukaryotic cells , and have - a plasma membrane - a nucleus - a cytoplasm. Organelles found in plant cells include : - some found in most eukaryotic cells - some unique to plant cells also unique to plant cells: extracellular matrix

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Plant cell structure

plant cells are eukaryotic cells, and have

- a plasma membrane

- a nucleus

- a cytoplasm

slide2

Organelles found in plant cells include:

- some found in most eukaryotic cells

- some unique to plant cells

also unique to plant cells: extracellular matrix

intercellular junctions

slide3

Vacuoles in plant cells

- often very large

- bound by the tonoplast

- varied functions

- origin

slide4

Plastids

- various mature types of plastids occur

- all originate as proplastids

- mature type that forms depends on circumstances

** some plastids can convert from one form into another if conditions change

slide5

General plastid structure:

- interior separated from exterior by plastid envelope

- interior matrix material = the stroma

- are small (~ 1-5 mm long)

slide6

Proplastids

- the smallest plastids

- found in specific cell types

- numerous (~ 7 - 40/cell)

- can replicate

slide7

Chloroplasts

- develop in shoot cells, if light is available

final structure includes

- chloroplast envelope

- stroma

- lamellae arranged into thylakoids and grana

~ 5 mm X 2 mm

~ 20 – 50/cell

slide8

Etioplasts

if light is not available in shoot cells, altered structures (etioplasts) develop

if light becomes available etioplast can be converted to chloroplast

slide9

Leucoplasts = any colorless plastids

- commonly develop in cells of storage tissues

amyloplast

elaioplast

slide10

Chromoplasts

- contain carotenoids, but no chlorophyll

- commonly found in fruits and flowers

- origin

- various functions

slide11

Glyoxysomes

  • - a specialized type of peroxisome
  • - contain enzymes found in peroxisomes
  • - also contain enzymes needed for glyoxylate cycle
  • Oleosomes
  • lipid-storing organelles, found mostly in oil-containing seeds
  • - internal lipids surrounded by a lipid monolayer
slide12

Plant cell walls

- form at time of cell formation, but may continue to develop over time

Primary cell wall

- forms at time of new cell formation

chemical components include:

- cellulose

- matrix materials(most are carbohydrates)

slide13

cellulose

- is a polysaccharide of glucose monomers

- exists in microfibrils

matrix materials

hemicelluloses

pectic substances

proteins & glycoproteins

slide14

Hemicelluloses

- somewhat similar to cellulose, but

- are often branched chains

- include sugar monomers other than glucose

Pectins

- are also various polysaccharides

Proteins

- most are glycoproteins; vary with cell type

Various components interact to form overall cell wall

slide15

cellulose is synthesized by a complex found in the plasma membrane

matrix materials are synthesized in the Golgi

slide16

Secondary cell wall

= additional layers of cell wall produced after early cell growth in some cells

chemical components include:

- cellulose

- hemicellulose

- pectic substances

- lignin

slide17

Lignin

- is a polymer of phenols; not a carbohydrate

- insoluble in water

- combined with cellulose, forms rigid structure

** Secondary wall ends up between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane

slide18

Plasmodesmata

- are the intercellular junctions of plant cells

- connect the cytoplasms of the adjacent cells

- complex structure

slide19

Two distinct regions within each plant:

1) the symplast

2) the apoplast

Transport through plants often occurs within one region or the other

- symplastic transport

- apoplastic transport