Personality Development. Dr Ros Weston Psychology . Definition: Child (1968) “More or less stable, internal factors that make one person’s behaviour consistent from one time to another, and different from the behaviour other people would manifest in comparable situations” Stable Internal
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Dr Ros Weston
“More or less stable, internal factors that make one person’s behaviour consistent
from one time to another, and different from the behaviour other people would
manifest in comparable situations”
Personality is ‘INTERNAL’
Freud’s theories on Personality Development
Change and development are the key words : internal process + past experiences
The dynamics of behaviour which is what distinguishes this theory from the cognitive
id ego super ego pleasure principle defence mechanisms
“defence against instinct”
The child learns
defensive behaviours to
Affective strategies in personality development
Case studies: Anna O
Myers & Brewin (1994) Childhood Memories
Williams (1994) Sexual Abuse
McGunnies (1949) Perception defence
“things are likely to be ignored if they are unpleasant or
Levinger & Clarke (1961) supported this using emotionally
provoking words. (they recalled the words that had neutral
(Evaluatory comment on each of these and on Freud’s theory of personality
natural processes expectations of
of maturation society
norms & values
(Ainsworth & Bell: 1970) (Bowlby, 1952)
(older children used more internal psychological terms. Younger children focused on concrete & tangible )
- the facing of developmental tension / conflicts
- most of the conflicts lie with the family (Freud also said : When
you are looking at a ‘sick’ (mentally) or disturbed person you often
don’t have to look far for a cause. (that does not mean the parents are to blame. It is the conflict that is problematic)
It gives a very tidy account of development
Key term : Significant others
-? -? -? -?
Observation & internalisation
This is exact opposite of learned helplessness
Self efficacy (self - image & belief in self
- Harter & Monsour (1992)
- Bandura & Cervone (1983)
- More than one self? (Baars, 1997)
- Not a development theory
What is gender?
(as part of personality)
Situation (upbrining & social context)
Gender stereo types
See : - Debates and all the work we did on real and perceived differences
- Psychoanalytical theory
- Social learning
- Cognitive (Kohlberg)
- Humanistic (Carl Rogers : Erikson)
“The child actively constructs his own experiences and they are not products of social
(fits with Piaget’s notion of conservation)
These stages are cross - cultural.
Slaby & Frey (1975) - attending to some sex models.
Ruble, Balabon & Cooper (1981) Adverts & gender consistency.
An organised set of beliefs about the sexes (Martin et al, 1987)
Evidence : (Martin et al, 1987)
(Bradbard et al, 1986)
(Masters et al, (1979)
Compare social learning theory yourself using biological; social
biological theory by explaining
The Isle of Wight Study (1976) Rutter’s large scale study.
What factors cause disturbance in young people?
What is the problem of retrospective data?
Relationship with parents Relationship with peers Cultural differences
Theories of Adolescent Development
Intimacy Diffusion Diffusion of industry Negative identity
Gender & individual differences alpha & beta bias
Coleman’s focal theory (1974)
‘Storm & Stress’