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Personality Development. Dr Ros Weston Psychology . Definition: Child (1968) “More or less stable, internal factors that make one person’s behaviour consistent from one time to another, and different from the behaviour other people would manifest in comparable situations” Stable Internal

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personality development

Personality Development

Dr Ros Weston

Psychology

slide2
Definition:

Child (1968)

“More or less stable, internal factors that make one person’s behaviour consistent

from one time to another, and different from the behaviour other people would

manifest in comparable situations”

  • Stable
  • Internal
  • Consistent
  • Different

Personality is ‘INTERNAL’

Freud’s theories on Personality Development

Change and development are the key words : internal process + past experiences

The dynamics of behaviour which is what distinguishes this theory from the cognitive

(Glassman, 1995)

slide3
Innate drives + early experiences

id ego super ego pleasure principle defence mechanisms

Anna Freud

“defence against instinct”

The child learns

defensive behaviours to

control id

Defence Mechanisms

1 Repression

2 Displacement

3 Projection

4 Denial

5 Intellectualisation

  • Psycho - sexual Development
  • Energy - libido
  • &
  • Eros & Thanatos
  • Oral
  • Anal
  • Phallic (Oedipus & Electra complexes)
  • Latency
  • Genital
slide4
Other Defence Mechanisms
  • Fixation

Affective strategies in personality development

  • Regression

Case studies: Anna O

Little Hans

Myers & Brewin (1994) Childhood Memories

Williams (1994) Sexual Abuse

McGunnies (1949) Perception defence

“things are likely to be ignored if they are unpleasant or

emotionally threatening”

Levinger & Clarke (1961) supported this using emotionally

provoking words. (they recalled the words that had neutral

associations)

(Evaluatory comment on each of these and on Freud’s theory of personality

development)

slide5
Neo - Freudians

Erikson (1959)

Conflict

WAR

natural processes expectations of

of maturation society

Parents

friends

teachers

employers

norms & values

slide6
Chart of Eight Stages

Evaluatory Comments

  • Used clinical evidence (therapist case studies using Freud’s clinical method)
  • theory imprecise & anecdotal
  • experimental research provides indirect support for Erikson

(Ainsworth & Bell: 1970) (Bowlby, 1952)

  • Stage 4 has been supported by work of Damon & Hart (1988)

(older children used more internal psychological terms. Younger children focused on concrete & tangible )

  • Strengths : - focuses on social process & ego development

- the facing of developmental tension / conflicts

- most of the conflicts lie with the family (Freud also said : When

you are looking at a ‘sick’ (mentally) or disturbed person you often

don’t have to look far for a cause. (that does not mean the parents are to blame. It is the conflict that is problematic)

  • Does not give detail of how you move from one stage to another
  • Dwaretzky (1996) feels there is little convincing evidence for E theory
  • Hard to test this theory
  • The evidence is correlational

It gives a very tidy account of development

slide7
Social Learning Theory

Key term : Significant others

Social Modelling

  • Attention
  • Retention
  • Reproduction
  • Motivation
  • Conditioning
  • Bandura’s work
  • What would help a child learn self - efficacy?

-? -? -? -?

Continue…………

Classical

Operant

Observation & internalisation

Vicarious

reinforcement

This is exact opposite of learned helplessness

Reciprocal determination

Self efficacy (self - image & belief in self

slide8
Evidence - Bobo doll

- Harter & Monsour (1992)

- Bandura & Cervone (1983)

  • Evaluatory Comment

- More than one self? (Baars, 1997)

- Not a development theory

slide9
Situationalism
  • Bandura suggested that personality is not a stable trait of an individual
  • Mischel & Peake’s theory (1982) suggest a consistency paradox. Research failed to show consistency
  • Behavioural specificity (M & P, 1982)
  • We think it is a stable trait because we see people in similar situations
  • Individual differences (M & P, 1993)

Person variables

  • Cognitive & behavioural
  • Encoding & personal constructs
  • Expectancy
  • Subjective stimulus value
  • self - regulatory systems & plans

Evidence

  • Context - dependent learning research (Abernety, 1940)
  • Generalising learning
  • Lack of fragmentation
slide10

Gender

Sexual identity

Sex

What is gender?

(as part of personality)

Gender identity

Behaviour

Situation (upbrining & social context)

Gender role

Gender stereo types

See : - Debates and all the work we did on real and perceived differences

- Psychoanalytical theory

- Social learning

- Cognitive (Kohlberg)

- Behaviourist

- Humanistic (Carl Rogers : Erikson)

slide11
Kohlbergs (1966) Cognitive - developmental theory (1966)

“The child actively constructs his own experiences and they are not products of social

training”

  • Basic - gender identity (2-3½)
  • Gender stability (3½ - 4½)
  • Gender consistency (4½ - 7yrs)

(fits with Piaget’s notion of conservation)

Evidence

  • Munroe, Shimmin & Munroe (1984)

These stages are cross - cultural.

Slaby & Frey (1975) - attending to some sex models.

Ruble, Balabon & Cooper (1981) Adverts & gender consistency.

Evaluatory Comments

  • Cross cultural
  • interactivity
  • gender identity - increases gender role
  • How they interact in the world requires gender identity
  • Criticism : gender role behaviour - depends on gender consistency
  • Contradictions
  • Individualistic (not social context)
slide12
Gender Schema Theory

An organised set of beliefs about the sexes (Martin et al, 1987)

  • in group, out group schema
  • our gender schema
  • children are not passive
  • gender - schema’s help them pay attention to ………… & interpret the world & what they remember
  • gender schemas structure experience

Evidence : (Martin et al, 1987)

(Bradbard et al, 1986)

(Masters et al, (1979)

Evaluatory Comment

  • seems to explain & fit with other theories of child development specially cognitive
  • individualistic
  • schemas are overaggerated
  • should be able to change schemas. As Durkin (1995) found: it is easier to change concepts

Continued……...

slide13
Now :

Compare social learning theory yourself using biological; social

biological theory by explaining

  • Theory (giving)
  • evidence (including)
  • evaluatory comment
slide14

What evidence is there that these are important

The Isle of Wight Study (1976) Rutter’s large scale study.

What factors cause disturbance in young people?

What is the problem of retrospective data?

Relationship with parents Relationship with peers Cultural differences

  • Marcia’s theory (1966-1980)
  • Alternatives to choose from
  • Have fun commitment been made
  • Four possible identity statuses
  • Identity diffusion
  • Foreclosure
  • Moratorium
  • Identity achievement
  • Evidence to support : Meilman (1979)
  • Evidence against : (Munroe & Adams (1977)

Theories of Adolescent Development

Delinquency

  • Erikson’s theory (1902, 1994)
  • Identity diffusion
  • Identity crisis
  • Counter evidence
  • Support evidence

Intimacy Diffusion Diffusion of industry Negative identity

Gender & individual differences alpha & beta bias

Coleman’s focal theory (1974)

‘Storm & Stress’