IE496Industrial Engineering Internship Dr. Barnes November 20, 2006 Lecture # 11
Abdella Appelt Cheng – outline only Drucker & Trifunovski Hanif Jankowski Kotarski Lee Liong & Kaczmarski Nasradinaj Skerker Tarrien Vaidya Widjaja Students handing in rough drafts
Groups with approved ethics projects • Group 1 – both approved • Group 2 – both approved • Group 3 - ? • Group 4 - both approved • Group 5 – four approved ? • Group 6 – both approved • Group 7 - ?
Main Topics • Technological Context of Engineering Practice • Societal, Global, and Professional Contexts of Engineering Practice • Aspirations for the Engineer of 2020 • Attributes of Engineers in 2020
Technological Context of Engineering Practice Technological Change Breakthrough Technologies Technological Challenges
Technological Change • More change from 1900 to 2000 than from all time before • Macroscopic → Microscopic → Molecular → Atomic → Subatomic
Breakthrough Technologies • Biotechnology • Nanotechnology • Materials Science and Photonics • Information and Communications Technology • The Information Explosion • Logistics
Biotechnology • Technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. The UNConvention on Biological Diversity has come up with one of many definitions of biotechnology: • "Biotechnology means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use." • This definition is at odds with common usage in the United States, where "biotechnology" generally refers to recombinant DNA based and/or tissue culture based processes that have only been commercialized since the 1970s.
Biotechnology - continued • Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through genomic manipulation. • White biotechnology, also known as grey biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. • Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn. Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate. • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques. The field is also often referred to as computational biology. It plays a key role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector. • The term blue biotechnology has also been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.
What is Nanotechnology? • Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.At the nanoscale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials differ in fundamental and valuable ways from the properties of individual atoms and molecules or bulk matter. Nanotechnology R&D is directed toward understanding and creating improved materials, devices, and systems that exploit these new properties. One area of nanotechnology R&D is medicine. Medical researchers work atthe micro- and nano-scales to develop new drug delivery methods, therapeutics and pharmaceuticals. For a bit of perspective, the diameter of DNA, our genetic material, is in the 2.5 nanometer range, while red blood cells are approximately 2.5 micrometers. Additional information about nanoscale research in medicine is available from the National Institutes of Health. • A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter; a sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick. See The Scale of Things for a comparative view of the sizes of commonly known items and nanoscale particles.
Photonics The science and technology of generating, controlling, and detecting photons, particularly in the visible light and near infra-redspectrum.
Applications of Photonics • Consumer Equipment: Barcode scanner, printer, CD/DVD/Blu-ray devices, remote control devices • Telecommunications: Optical fiber communications • Medicine: correction of poor eyesight, laser surgery, surgical endoscopy, tattoo removal • Industrial manufacturing: the use of lasers for welding, drilling, cutting, and various kinds of surface modification • Construction: laser levelling, laser rangefinding, smart structures • Aviation: photonic gyroscopes lacking any moving parts • Military: IR sensors, command and control, navigation, search and rescue, mine laying and detection • Entertainment: laser shows, beam effects, holographic art • Information processing • Metrology: time and frequency measurements, rangefinding • Photonic computing: clock distribution and communication between computers, circuit boards, or within optoelectronic integrated circuits; in the future: quantum computing
Technological Challenges • Physical Infrastructures in Urban Settings • Information and Communications Infrastructures • The Environment • Technology for an Aging Population
Societal, Global, and Professional Contexts of Engineering Practice Social Context Professional Context for Engineers of the Future Implications for Engineering Education
Social Context • Population and Demographics • Health and Healthcare • The Youth Bulge and Security Implications • The Accelerating Global Economy
Professional Context for Engineers in the Future • The Systems Perspective • Working in Teams • Complexity • Customerization • Public Policy • Public Understanding of Engineering • Building on Past Successes and Failures
Implications for Engineering Education • An Aging Population • The Global Economy • The Five- or Six-Year Professional Degree • Immigration and the Next Generation of U.S. Engineering Students • Building on Past Successes and Failures • Education Research • Teamwork, Communication, and Public Policy
Aspirations for theEngineer of 2002 Visions of the Committee
Visions of the Committee • Our Image of the Profession • Engineering without Boundaries • Engineering a Sustainable Society and World • Education of the Engineer of 2020
Our Image and the Profession By 2020, we aspire to • a public that will understand and appreciate the profound impact of the engineering profession on socio-cultural systems, the full spectrum of career opportunities accessible through an engineering education, and the value of an engineering education top engineers working successfully in non-engineering jobs.
Our Image and the Profession - continued We aspire to • a public that will recognize the union of professionalism, technical knowledge, social and historical awareness, and traditions that serve to make engineers competent to address the world’s complex and changing challenges.
Our Image and the Profession - continued We aspire to • engineers in 2020 who will remain well grounded in the basics of mathematics and science, and who will expand their vision of design through solid grounding in the humanities, social sciences, and economics. Emphasis on the creative process will allow more effective leadership in the development and application of next-generation technologies to problems of the future.
Engineering without Boundaries We aspire to • an engineering profession that will rapidly embrace the potentialities offered by creativity, invention, and cross-disciplinary fertilization to create and accommodate new fields of endeavors, including those that require openness to interdisciplinary efforts with non-engineering disciplines such as science, social science, and business.
Engineering without Boundaries - continued By 2020 we aspire to • engineers who will assume leadership positions from which they can serve as positive influences in the making of public policy and in the administration of government and industry. • an engineering profession that will effectively recruit, nurture, and welcome underrepresented groups to its ranks.
Engineering a Sustainable Society and World It is our aspiration that • engineers will continue to be leaders in the movement toward use of wise, informed, and economical sustainable development. This should begin in our educational institutions and be founded in the basic tenets of the engineering profession and its actions.
Engineering a Sustainable Society and World - continued We aspire to a future where • engineers are prepared to adapt to changes in global forces and trends and to ethically assist the world in creating a balance in the standard of living for developing and developed countries alike.
Education of the Engineer of 2020 It is our aspiration that • engineering educators and practicing engineers together undertake a proactive effort to prepare engineering education to address the technology and societal challenges and opportunities of the future. With appropriate thought and consideration, and using new strategic planning tools, we should reconstitute engineering curricula and related educational programs to prepare today’s engineers for the careers of the future, with due recognition of the rapid pace of change in the world and its intrinsic lack of predictability.
Education of the Engineer of 2020 - continued Our aspiration is to • shape the engineering curriculum for 2020 so as to be responsive to the disparate learning styles of different student populations and attractive for all those seeking full and well-rounded education that prepares a person for a creative and productive life and positions of leadership.
Attributes of Engineers in 2020 Connections between Engineering Past, Present, and Future
Guiding Principles • The pace of technological innovation will continue to be rapid (most likely accelerating) • The world in which technology will be deployed will be intensely globally interconnected. • The population of individuals who are involved with or affected by technology (e.g., designers, manufacturers, distributors, users) will be increasingly diverse and multidisciplinary.
Guiding Principles - continued • Social, cultural, political, and economic forces will continue to shape and affect success of technological innovation. • The presence of technology in our everyday lives will be seamless, transparent, and more significant than ever.
Connections between EngineeringPast, Present, and Future Will • require strong analytical skills • exhibit practical ingenuity • have creativity • require good communication • need to master principles of management and business • understand principles of leadership • possess high ethical standards and strong professionalism • demonstrate dynamism, agility, resilience, and flexibility • be lifelong learners
Game Let’s make a list of what you believe will be the top strategic technologies for the year 2020.
Battelle Battelle’s Technology Forecasts http://www.battelle.org/forecasts/default.stm
Battelle’s 2020 Strategic Technologies • Genetic-based Medical and Health Care • High-power energy packages • GrinTech (Green Integrated Technology) • Omnipresent Computing • Nanomachines • Personalized Public Transportation • Designer Foods and Crops • Intelligent Goods and Appliances • Worldwide Inexpensive and Safe Water • Super Senses
Rising Above the Gathering Storm – Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future A report from the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine
Charge U.S. Congress – what are the top actions that federal policy-makers could take to enhance the science and technology enterprise so that the United States can successfully compete, prosper and be secure in the global community of the 21st Century?
Top Actions • Increase America’s talent pool by vast improving K – 12 science and mathematics • Sustain and strengthen the nation’s traditional commitment to long-term basic research • Make the U.S. the most attractive setting to study and perform research • Insure that the U.S. is the premier place in the world to innovate
Info source • The Engineer of 2020 – Visions of Engineering in the New Century, National Academy of Engineering, 2002. • The Battelle company, Columbus, Ohio • Rising Above the Gathering Storm, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, 2005. • Wikipedia
Your ethics assignments are due next week • Four groups will present in our next class – the other three the following week. • All must submit their assignments electronically by eob, November 27th.