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Earthquake Preparedness and Countermeasures in Osaka Municipal Waterworks Bureau. Osaka Municipal Waterworks Bureau Kazuya YAMANO. Osaka Municipal Waterworks. Purification plants: 3 plants Distribution pipes: 5,000 km

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earthquake preparedness and countermeasures in osaka municipal waterworks bureau

Earthquake Preparedness and Countermeasures in Osaka Municipal Waterworks Bureau

Osaka Municipal Waterworks Bureau

Kazuya YAMANO

osaka municipal waterworks
Osaka Municipal Waterworks

Purification plants: 3 plants

Distribution pipes: 5,000 km

Water supply capacity: 2,430,000 m3/day

Area: 211km2

Population:2.6 million

OSAKA City

Kobe City

Japan

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

outline of earthquake preparedness efforts
Outline of Earthquake Preparedness Efforts

Kobe Earthquake (1995)

Earthquake Preparedness Improvement Plan 21(1996)

Review of scenario earthquakes (2004~)

Investigation of seismic motion

Tsunami

Estimation

Estimation

Improving earthquake preparedness

Damage of distribution pipes

Influence on purification plants

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

outline of earthquake preparedness efforts4
Outline of Earthquake Preparedness Efforts

Kobe Earthquake (1995)

Earthquake Preparedness Improvement Plan 21(1996)

Review of scenario earthquakes (2004~)

Investigation of seismic motion

Tsunami

Estimation

Estimation

Improving earthquake preparedness

Damage of distribution pipes

Influence on purification plants

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

osaka municipal waterworks earthquake preparedness improvement plan 21
Osaka Municipal Waterworks Earthquake Preparedness Improvement Plan 21

8 Basic Elements

  • Improving Earthquake Resistance of Key Facilities
  • Establishing a Water Supply and Distribution Center Network
  • Improving Compatibility among Different Distribution Systems
  • Countermeasures against Power Failure
  • Expanding Emergency Material Stock System
  • Establishing Stable Water Supply Routes to Man-made Islands
  • Improving Reliability of Information and Communication System
  • Improving Earthquake Resistance of Headquarters Necessary for Disaster Relief and Recovery Activities

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide6

Earthquake Preparedness (1)

Improving earthquake resistance of distribution pipe network

Length of cast iron pipes

1,278 km (1997)

870 km (2005)

Ductile Iron Pipe

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide7

Sakishima Distribution Plant

SAKISHIMA

Nagai Distribution Plant

NAGAI

Earthquake Preparedness (2)

Increasing capacity of drinking water reservoirs

Capacity of distribution reservoir

Nagai : 42,000 ㎥

KUNIJIMA

Sakishima : 30,000 ㎥

Total : 72,000 ㎥ UP

JOTO

OYODO

OTEMAE

TATSUMI

MINATO

Osaka City

SUMIYOSHI

SUMINOE

Distribution Plant (existing)

Distribution Plant (newly-built)

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide8

Earthquake Preparedness (3)

Sufficiency of emergency materials

Water Supply Truck

Polyethylene Bag (3L, 10L)

Pipe Stock

Temporary Water Tank(4m3)

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide9

Earthquake Preparedness (4)

Realization of effective emergency activity

Disaster InformationManagement System

Headquarters

Instructions

Report

Disaster Site

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

outline of earthquake preparedness efforts10
Outline of Earthquake Preparedness Efforts

Kobe Earthquake (1995)

Earthquake Preparedness Improvement Plan 21(1996)

Review of scenario earthquakes (2004~)

Investigation of seismic motion

Tsunami

Estimation

Estimation

Improving earthquake preparedness

Damage of distribution pipes

Influence on purification plants

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

scenario earthquakes
Scenario Earthquakes

(c)

(b)

(a)

(d)

(a) Uemachi fault

(b) Ikoma fault

(c) Arima-Takatsuki-kozosen fault

(d) Chuo-kozosen fault

(e) Nankai trough (Tonankai-Nankai Earthquake)

Tsunami

(e)

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

outline of earthquake preparedness efforts12
Outline of Earthquake Preparedness Efforts

Kobe Earthquake (1995)

Earthquake Preparedness Improvement Plan 21(1996)

Review of scenario earthquakes (2004~)

Investigation of seismic motion

Tsunami

Estimation

Estimation

Improving earthquake preparedness

Damage of distribution pipes

Influence on purification plants

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide13

Japan

Kobe

Osaka

Tonankai

Nankai

Tonankai & Nankai Earthquake (1)

Earthquake Occurrence Probability (within next 30 years)

- Tonankai Earthquake : about 60%

- Nankai Earthquake : about 50%

Scenario Earthquake

Committee on Tonankai & Nankai Tsunami

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide14

Japan

Kobe

Osaka

Tonankai

Nankai

Tonankai & Nankai Earthquake (2)

Earthquake Occurrence Probability

Scenario Earthquake

- Simultaneous Occurrence of Tonankai & Nankai Earthquakes

- JMA Magnitude : 8.4

Committee on Tonankai & Nankai Tsunami

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide15

Tonankai & Nankai Earthquake (3)

Earthquake Occurrence Probability

Scenario Earthquake

Committee on Tonankai & Nankai Tsunami

Chairperson: Prof. Kawata ( Kyoto Univ. )

Members: Osaka City, Osaka Pref., Wakayama Pref.

Osaka City

Making map of inundation by Tsunami

Possibility of tsunami going over Yodo River Large Weir revealed

Inundation map

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide16

Preparedness against tsunami caused by Tonankai & Nankai Earthquake

Committee on the Influence on Water Treatment by Tsunami in Yodo River

Examination of Intake ofKunijima purification plant along Yodo River :

(2) Turbidity

(1) Chloride ion

Upper Flow

Yodo River

Intake of

Kunijima P.P

Yodo River Large Weir

Overflow

Kunijima P.P

1,180,000m3/day

Lower Flow

(Osaka Bay)

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide17

Tsunami simulation

Tsunami simulation

Yodo River

Model of seismic source

Kobe

Osaka

Yodo River Large Weir

Japan

Osaka Bay

Tonankai

Nankai

(River flow : 196m3/s)

JMA Magnitude : 8.4

Tsunami arrives at the Yodo River estuary within 2 hours and the Yodo River Large Weir within 2.5 hours after the earthquake.

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide18

Chloride Ion Concentration

Tsunami simulation

Chloride ion concentration

Yodo River

Kobe

Osaka

Intake point

Adjustment gate

Upper Flow

Lower Flow

(Osaka Bay)

Maximum height of tsunami ( m )

Yodo River Large Weir

Main gate

Yodo River Large Weir

Kema

Lock Gate

Adjustment gate

(River flow : 196m3/s)

Kema

Water Gate

Okawa River

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide19

Conclusion

Time of concentration being over standards (h)

At Intake point, maximumconcentration of Chloride ion is about 1,000 mg/L and maximum duration of concentration level exceeding water quality standards is about 1 hour.

Necessity of preparedness against tsunami

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

outline of earthquake preparedness efforts20
Outline of Earthquake Preparedness Efforts

Kobe Earthquake (1995)

Earthquake Preparedness Improvement Plan 21(1996)

Review of scenario earthquakes (2004~)

Investigation of seismic motion

Tsunami

Estimation

Estimation

Improving earthquake preparedness

Damage of distribution pipes

Influence on purification plants

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

investigation flow chart

STEP1

Investigation Flow Chart

Collection and organization of data relevant to seismic damage of distribution pipes

STEP2

Making damage ratio equations

STEP3

Damage estimation of distribution pipes based on scenario earthquakes

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

points of the review
Points of the Review
  • Upgraded seismic damage data obtained from recent research on earthquake engineering
  • New estimation of the seismic damages of distribution pipes in liquefied area

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

data utilized 1
Data Utilized (1)

◆ Previous research ◆

【2km×2km data near seismometers (JWWA1996,1998)】

= 29 areas

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

data utilized 2
Data Utilized (2)

◆Present research◆

Seismic Motion of Kobe Earthquake Reproduced

Damage Ratio of Distribution Pipes during Kobe Earthquake

= about 4,800 meshes

【250m×250m data(JWWA1996)】

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

damage ratio equation
Damage Ratio Equation

D0 = a x (PGV - b)

D0 : Average Ratio of Damage (points/km)

PGV : Peak Ground Velocity (cm/s)

a, b : Coefficient Constant

D = D0 x C1 x C2

D : Rate of Damage (points/km)

C1 : Diameter Correction Factor

C2 : Ground Correction Factor

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

classification of liquefaction 1

Non-LiquefactionHalf-LiquefactionLiquefaction

Classification of Liquefaction (1)

Liquefaction Assessment

PL-value calculated by Osaka Municipal Waterworks Bureau

Liquefaction Level as Classified by JWWA

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

classification of liquefaction 2
Classification of Liquefaction (2)

◆Liquefied Ground◆

- : cumulo-probability

density function

Liquefaction frequency (%)

Liquefaction frequency (%)

PL value

PL value

Relation between PL value and liquefied area

Relation between PL value and liquefied area

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

damage ratio equation non liquefied ground

2

4

【Kobe earthquake】

□ 2km mesh area data

● 250m×250m data

3

【function】

━ Osaka(2006)

━ Osaka(1997)

━ JWWA(1998)

2

1

1

0

0

50

100

150

200

0

0

50

100

150

200

Damage Ratio Equation (Non-Liquefied Ground)

<Ductile Iron Pipe>

<Cast Iron Pipe>

Damage ratio

(points/km)

Damage ratio

(points/km)

PGV (cm/s)

PGV (cm/s)

D0=0.0065 x (PGV-15)

D0=0.0153 x (PGV-15)

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide29

【Kobe earthquake】

□ 2km mesh area data

● 250m×250m data

【function】

10

━ Osaka(2006)

━ JWWA(1998)

10

8

8

6

6

4

4

4

2.56

2

2

0

0

50

100

150

200

0

0

50

100

150

200

Damage Ratio (Liquefied Ground)

<Ductile Iron Pipe>

<Cast Iron Pipe>

Damage ratio

(points/km)

Damage ratio

(points/km)

PGV (cm/s)

PGV (cm/s)

[Reference]

[Reference]

Average Damage Ratio=2.56

Average Damage Ratio=4.00

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

investigation flow chart30

STEP1

Investigation Flow Chart

Collection and organization of the data relevant to seismic damage of distribution pipes

STEP2

Making damage ratio equations

  • Examining upper value of damage ratio
  • Examiningvalue of damage ratio in liquefied ground

STEP3

Damage estimation of distribution pipes based on scenario earthquakes

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

advanced investigation plan

1

Damage Estimation of Distribution Pipes

2

Simulation of Areas Affected by Water Suspension

3

Estimation of Seismic Damage to the Water Supply System

Examination of Effective Earthquake Countermeasures

4

Advanced Investigation Plan

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention!

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

vertical two dimensional box model
Vertical Two-Dimensional Box Model

Depth Direction

Flow Direction

Cell: Move of water and suspended solid is ignored

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide34

Tsunami Simulation

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide35

Equations and Conditions (Tsunami Simulation)

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

slide36

Equations and Conditions (Calculation of the chloride ion concentration)

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

seismic motion damage of pipes
Seismic Motion & Damage of pipes

Seismic Motion of Kobe Earthquake Reproduced

Strongest Shaking Area

Damage Ratio of Distribution Pipes during Kobe Earthquake

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

pl value
PL Value

w(z) =10 – 0.5 x z

z : Depth from surface

F = 1 – FL (FL<1.0)

0 ( FL>=1.0)

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau

disaster information management system
Disaster Information Management System

Integrated Management

Support for information to citizens and Osaka City Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters

Seismic damage simulation function

Pipeline restoration

Disaster Emergency Activities Information Management Functions

Emergency water supply

Facility restoration

OSAKA Municipal Waterworks Bureau