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Early Adulthood to Late Life. Cognitive Development. Adaptive Cognition. Perry’s Theory. Interviewed college students every 4 years… Dualistic thinking: right or wrong, good or bad Younger students Relativistic thinking: no absolute truth; evaluate solutions in context Older students.

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early adulthood to late life

Early Adulthood to Late Life

Cognitive Development

perry s theory

Adaptive Cognition

Perry’s Theory
  • Interviewed college students every 4 years…
  • Dualistic thinking: right or wrong, good or bad
    • Younger students
  • Relativistic thinking: no absolute truth; evaluate solutions in context
    • Older students

Did student’s thinking change throughout college?

slide4

**Schaie’s theory & Labouvie-Vief’s theory**

** college experience: psychological impact & dropping out **

dual component model of intelligence baltes 1987
Dual-component Model of Intelligence (Baltes, 1987)
  • Basic information processing
  • Hardware of the mind
  • Biologically-dependent
  • Genetically predisposed

Fluid

Crystallized

Crystallized build on fluid abilities

  • Acquired knowledge
  • Software (content-rich)
  • Culture-dependent
  • Experience-based
schaie s seattle longitudinal study
Schaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study
  • Sequential design
    • began 1956… last testing 1998
    • tested every 7 years (longitudinal)
    • new group of young adults at each time (cross-sectional)
  • Participants
    • 5000+
    • age ranges from 20s to 100+
    • recruited from health insurance
    • upper 75% of SES
  • Measures
    • Thurstone’s 5 Primary Mental Abilities
verbal meaning
Verbal Meaning

Choose the word that means the same as the one that is underlined.

Fracture: complete, write, break, forget

Crystallized

number ability
Number Ability

If apples cost 90 cents a dozen, how much would 4 apples cost?

  • 50 cents
  • 30 cents
  • 75 cents
  • 60 cents

Crystallized

word fluency verbal memory
Word fluency (verbal memory)

Write down as many things as you can that are yellow, or yellow more often than any other color.

Fluid

spatial orientation
Spatial Orientation

Which figure would fill in the missing square?

Fluid

inductive reasoning
Inductive Reasoning

Which letter comes next in the series?

  • a a b b c c d ___
  • a l a m a n a ___

d

o

Fluid

slide14

Results: Cross-sectional age findings

Declines more dramatic for fluid

Abilities begin to decline in 40s

  • What is a major problem with cross-sectional research?
slide15

Results: Cohort effect findings

Positive cohort shifts

Negative cohort shifts

No cohort shifts

slide16

All abilities increase until 30s-40s

Significant losses are not seen until late 60s

Relative stability until 50s - 60s

Results: Longitudinal age findings

More decline in fluid

slide17

Results: Individual differences

Everyone shows declines in at least 1 ability by 60s

Few people show declines on all 5, even in 80s

what accounts for the reliable declines in fluid abilities
What accounts for the reliable declines in fluid abilities?
  • Speed of processing
    • Measured using simple to complex

reaction time tasks

    • Higher RT number = slower speed

What is a slower reaction time?

slower processing speed is one of the most consistent cognitive changes in adulthood
Slower processing speed is one of the most consistent cognitive changes in adulthood!

“Everything moves so fast these days!”

theory neural network hypothesis

Output (RT)

Input

Plaques & tangles disrupt connections

Build new pathways

Theory: Neural network hypothesis

** Information Loss View **

what is the biggest cognitive complaint among middle aged older adults

“I can’t remember….”

** Memory & attention: midlife & late life**

What is the biggest cognitive complaint among middle-aged & older adults?

tulving s memory model
Tulving's Memory Model

How is it measured in the lab?

episodic memory task
Episodic memory task
  • List learning: recognition & recall

Do you remember any of these words from the in-class assignment?

cakebook

sock car

bat cup

clockfish

tree table

cart egg

cake book

sock car

bat cup

clock fish

tree table

cart egg

Are there age differences?

slide25

Recall

Recognition

Smaller age differences for recognition memory because it provides supportive context

episodic memory task26

Reminiscence bump

Episodic memory task
  • Remote (autobiographical) memory
    • cue word technique: how old were you?

Car

Dog

semantic memory tasks
Semantic memory tasks
  • Category tasks:
    • Apple is a _______.
    • Linguini is a _________.
    • Basil is a __________.
  • Lexical decision: decide if word
    • stapa
    • stop
    • chup
    • sniff

Are there age differences?

NO!

slide28

abacus

albatross

barnacle

chameleon

filament

kaleidoscope

  • Word finding task: tip-of-the-tongue

Are there age differences?

Most common memory complaint in late life is not being able to recall a word, especially names!

expertise
Expertise

What makes someone an expert?

  • Extensive domain-specific knowledge
  • Process information more efficiently & deeply
  • Solve problems systematically

At what age do we become experts?

age x expertise interaction
Age x Expertise Interaction

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WARRIOR 4325V, TURN LEFT HEADING 180, MAINTAIN 230 KNOTS OR GREATER.

Expertise reduces age differences only when task…

… relies heavily on domain-specific knowledge.

wisdom

“Live a good, honorable life. Then when you get older and think back, you'll be able to enjoy it a second time.”

Wisdom

What does it mean to be wise? Who is wise?

in class assignment 7
In-Class Assignment 7

Purpose of this assignment is to become familiar with methods used to assess wisdom and identifying criteria for wisdom.

How would you respond?

slide38

Does wisdom come with age?

Wisdom is stable across most of adulthood!

slide39
But, people nominated as wise are usually older…

Clinicians are “experts” in pragmatics of life

Wisdom is related to experience, & age & experience are related