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CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS. Topic 5 Hearing Disorders and Hearing Loss Introduction to Sound Types of Hearing Loss. Sound System. Source Any vibrating object Medium Any gas, liquid or solid Receiver

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csd 2230 human communication disorders

CSD 2230HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS

Topic 5

Hearing Disorders and Hearing Loss

Introduction to Sound

Types of Hearing Loss

sound system
Sound System

Source

  • Any vibrating object

Medium

  • Any gas, liquid or solid

Receiver

  • anything designed to detect the vibrations within the medium originating from the source
a common sound system
A Common Sound System

Illustration of the distribution of molecules surrounding a source in an instant in time

condensation and rarefaction
Condensation and Rarefaction

Bands of condensation and rarefaction emanating from a sound source

propagation of a disturbance through a medium
Propagation of a Disturbance Through a Medium

Notice that as time goes on, molecules farther from the source become affected by the disturbance.

important physical characteristics of sound
Frequency

Rate of pressure change as a function of time

Measured as cycles/sec or Hertz

The primary determiner of pitch

Intensity

Magnitude of the pressure change

Measured as the decibel (dB)

The primary determiner of loudness

Important Physical Characteristics of Sound
frequency and intensity
Frequency and Intensity

Sounds a and c share the same frequency and sounds b and c share the same intensity

loudness and intensity
Loudness and Intensity

Here are some common sounds and their decibel equivalents

the hearing system
The Hearing System

Basic schematic diagram of the entire auditory system

types of hearing impairment
Types of Hearing Impairment
  • A loss of sensitivity
  • Auditory nervous system pathology
important terms
Important Terms
  • Time of onset
  • Congenital: present at birth
  • Acquired: obtained after birth
  • Adventitious: acquired after birth
important terms13
Important Terms
  • Time Course
  • Acute: sudden onset/short duration
  • Chronic: long duration
  • Sudden: rapid onset
  • Gradual: changes slowly over time
important terms14
Important Terms
  • Time Course
  • Temporary: limited duration
  • Permanent: irreversible
  • Progressive: advancing
  • Fluctuating: changes in degree over time
important terms15
Important Terms
  • Number of Ears Involved
  • Unilateral: Just one
  • Bilateral: Both
hearing sensitivity loss
Hearing Sensitivity Loss
  • “The ear is not as sensitive as normal in detecting sound”
  • Types:
    • Conductive
    • Sensorineural
    • Mixed
conductive hearing loss
Conductive Hearing Loss
  • “Caused by an abnormal reduction or attenuation of sound as it travels from the outer ear to the cochlea”
sensorineural hearing loss
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • “Caused by a failure in the cochlea to transduce the sound from the middle ear to neural impulses in the VIII Nerve.”
sensorineural hearing loss19
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Implications include:
  • A reduction in the sensitivity of the receptor cells in the cochlea
  • A reduction in the frequency resolving power of the cochlea
  • A reduction in the dynamic range of the system
mixed hearing loss
Mixed Hearing Loss
  • “A loss with both a conductive and sensorineural component.”
types of hearing impairment21
Types of Hearing Impairment
  • A loss of sensitivity
  • Auditory nervous system pathology
auditory nervous system impairment
Auditory Nervous System Impairment
  • Causes:
  • Disease
  • Disordered auditory nervous system development
auditory nervous system impairment23
Auditory Nervous System Impairment
  • Kinds:
  • Retrocochlear disorders
  • Central auditory processing disorders
auditory nervous system impairment24
Auditory Nervous System Impairment
  • Auditory Characteristics:
  • Reduced ability to understand speech in a noise background
  • Problems understanding speech with reduced redundancy
  • Problems with localization and lateralization
  • Problems processing normal or altered temporal cues
auditory pathologies
Auditory Pathologies

Outer and middle ear disorders

  • Conductive pathologies

Cochlear disorders

  • Sensorineural pathologies

Central auditory disorders

  • Central auditory pathologies
outer and middle ear disorders
Outer and Middle Ear Disorders
  • Structural defects due to embryologic malformations
  • Structural changes secondary to infection or trauma
outer ear disorders
Outer Ear Disorders
  • Microtia and atresia
microtia
Microtia
  • “an abnormal smallness of the auricle”
atresia
Atresia
  • “the absence of an opening of the external canal”
outer ear disorders30
Outer Ear Disorders
  • Microtia and atresia
  • Impacted cerumen
  • Perforation of the tympanic membrane
outer ear disorders31
Outer Ear Disorders
  • Microtia and atresia
  • Impacted cerumen
  • Perforation of the tympanic membrane
  • Other
middle ear disorders
Otitis Media

Most common cause of transient conductive hearing loss in children

Inflamation of the middle ear

Caused by eustachian tube failure

Middle Ear Disorders
ways to classify otitis media
Ways to Classify Otitis Media
  • With or without effusion
  • Fluid type
    • Serous
    • Suppurative
    • Mucoid
ways to classify otitis media34
Ways to Classify Otitis Media
  • With or without effusion
  • Fluid type
  • Duration
    • Acute
    • Chronic
    • Subacute
    • Persistent
    • Recurrent
otitis media facts
Otitis Media Facts
  • 76-95% of all kids will have one episode of OM by age 6
  • Prevalence is highest during the first two years of life
  • 50% of all kids with one episode before their first birthday will have 6 or more bouts within two years
  • Most episodes occur in winter and spring
  • Risk factors
    • Cleft palate
    • Down syndrome
    • Native Americans
    • Urban poor
    • Day care
    • Secondhand smoke
middle ear disorders36
Middle Ear Disorders
  • Otitis media
  • Otosclerosis
otosclerosis
Otosclerosis
  • “a bone disorder that affects the stapes and the bony labyrinth of the inner ear. The disease process is characterized by resorption of bone and new spongy formation around the stapes and oval window”
otosclerosis38
Otosclerosis
  • Facts:
  • Hereditary
  • Women are more likely to develop the disorder
  • Usually bilateral
  • progressive
middle ear disorders39
Middle Ear Disorders
  • Otitis media
  • Otosclerosis
  • Cholesteatoma
cholesteatoma
Cholesteatoma
  • “an epithelial pocket that forms on the tympanic membrane. Once the pocket forms, the normal shedding of epithelium results in growth of the tumor”
middle ear disorders41
Middle Ear Disorders
  • Otitis media
  • Otosclerosis
  • Cholesteatoma
  • Other
    • Physical trauma
    • Barotrauma
    • Middle ear tumors
      • Glomus tumor
cochlear disorders
Cochlear Disorders
  • Syndromes and inherited disorders
    • Syndromic disorders
    • Nonsyndromal disorders
types of nonsyndromic disorders
Types of Nonsyndromic Disorders
  • Dominant
  • Dominant progressive
  • Dominant progressive with adult onset
  • Recessive hereditary SNHL
  • X-linked
cochlear disorders45
Cochlear Disorders
  • Syndromes and inherited disorders
  • Noise induced hearing loss
noise induced hearing loss
Noise Induced Hearing Loss
  • The degree of SNHL depends on
  • The intensity of the noise
  • The spectral composition of the noise
  • The duration of exposure
  • Individual susceptibility
cochlear disorders48
Cochlear Disorders
  • Syndromes and inherited disorders
  • Noise induced hearing loss
  • Other trauma
  • Infections
infections
Infections
  • Congenital
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • HIV
    • Rubella
    • Syphilis
    • Toxoplasmosis
infections50
Infections
  • Acquired
    • Herpes Zooster Oticus (Chicken Pox)
    • Mumps
    • Syphilis
cochlear disorders51
Cochlear Disorders
  • Syndromes and inherited disorders
  • Noise induced hearing loss
  • Other trauma
  • Infections
  • Ototoxicity
ototoxicity
Ototoxicity
  • Some antibiotics that are often ototoxic:
    • Amikacin
    • Dihydrostreptomycin
    • Garamycin
    • Gentamicin
    • Kanamycin
    • Neomycin
    • Netilmicin
    • Streptomycin
    • Tobramycin
    • Viomycin
ototoxicity53
Ototoxicity
  • Chemotherapy
    • Carboplatin
    • Cisplatin
  • Drugs that cause reversible hearing loss
    • Quinine
    • Salicylates (aspirin)
    • Loop diuretics
  • Drugs that may be harmful during pregnancy
    • Accutane
    • Dilantin
    • Quinine
    • Thalidomide
cochlear disorders54
Cochlear Disorders
  • Syndromes and inherited disorders
  • Noise induced hearing loss
  • Other trauma
  • Infections
  • Ototoxicity
  • Meniere’s Disease
meniere s disease
Meniere’s Disease
  • Symptoms
    • Tinnitus
    • Vertigo
    • Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss
cochlear disorders56
Cochlear Disorders
  • Syndromes and inherited disorders
  • Noise induced hearing loss
  • Other trauma
  • Infections
  • Ototoxicity
  • Meniere’s Disease
  • Presbycusis
central auditory disorders
Central Auditory Disorders
  • VIII Nerve tumors
  • Other diseases of the VIII Nerve
  • Neural disorders
    • Cochlear neuritis
    • Diabetes mellitus
  • Brain Stem disorders
    • Infarcts
    • Gliomas
    • Multiple sclerosis
  • Temporal Lobe disorders