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Biology – 328 Lab Plants and People Objective Understanding origin of flowers, its morphology and anatomy To study flowers based on Types of pollination Presence of floral whorls Presence of sexes Line of symmetry Sexual expression Position of ovary

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biology 328 lab

Biology – 328 Lab

Plants and People

  • Understanding origin of flowers, its morphology and anatomy
  • To study flowers based on
    • Types of pollination
    • Presence of floral whorls
    • Presence of sexes
    • Line of symmetry
    • Sexual expression
    • Position of ovary
  • To study different types of inflorescences
  • Origin – Modified shoot
  • Floral Morphology
    • Calyx (sepals)
    • Corolla (petals) - 3’s in monocots and 4’s or 5’s in dicots)
    • Perianth (calyx + corolla)
    • Gynoecium (pistil- stigma, style, ovary)
    • Androecium (stamen- anther, filament)
    • Receptacle
floral anatomy
Floral anatomy
  • Locules – Open space inside ovary
  • Carpels – Basic developmental unit
    • Apocarpous (carpels not fused)
    • Syncarpous (carpels fused)
  • Pistil
    • Simple – Unicarpellate (1 carpel)
    • Compound – Syncarpellate (2 or more carpels FUSED)
types of flowers
Types of flowers
  • Based on pollination
    • Entomophily (insect)
    • Anemophily (wind)
  • Based on presence of floral whorls
    • Complete flower - All 4 floral whorls present
    • Incomplete – Not all 4 floral whorls present
  • Based on presence of sexes
    • Perfect – Both sexes present
    • Imperfect – Not both sexes present

Based on line of symmetry

    • Actinomorphic (regular)– more than one plane of symmetry
    • Zygomorphic (irregular)– One plane of symmetry
  • Based on sexual expression
    • Monoecious – “One house” (male and female part present in the same flower in the same plant or different flowers in the same plant)
    • Dioecious – “Two house” (male and female flowers in different flowers in different plants

Based on ovary position

    • Hypogynous (superior ovary) – Floral whorls arranged below (=hypo) ovary (=gynous)

Perigynous (superior ovary) – Floral whorls arranged around (=peri) overy (=gynous). Presence of well developed HYPANTHIUM (cup) made of receptacle and bases of sepals, petals and stamen

types of inflorescences
Types of inflorescences
  • Raceme – Unbranched inflo. with pedicel and indeterminate (young flowers on top).

Eg. Orchid, Milkwort


Catkin/Ament - Same as spike, but unisexual

Eg. Oak, Pecan, Birch, hickory, willow


Compound Umbel – Group of umbels whose peduncles arise from same point

Eg. All members of Apiaceae (carrot family)

  • Panicle – Inflorescence which branches and rebranches. For eg. Yucca, Lilac, Wisteria

Head/Capitulum – Dense arrangement of sessile flowers on a common receptacle

Eg. Sunflower, Daisy, Aster, Thistle

today s lab
Today’s Lab
  • Carefully EXAMINE all floral material provided using the following exercise and questions as a guideline.  To gain an ultimate familiarity with floral morphology, compare the material against descriptions and definitions in your lecture notes or textbook.  Become familiar with cross and long sections.
  • 1.  Flowers are arranged in groups called inflorescences.  We will examine some inflorescences particular to certain families later in the semester.  For now, know what an inflorescence is and which one we looked at today.
  • 2.  DRAW a longitudinal section of a typical flower labeling the following parts:  receptacle, calyx, sepals, corolla, petals, perianth, pedicel, ovary, ovule, style, stigma, pistil, gynoecium, anther, filament, stamen, and androecium.
today s lab21
Today’s Lab
  • 3.  EXAMINE by dissection the floral material provided making long and cross sections of the flower and its parts.  On a separate sheet of paper, SKETCH the flowers and label the parts.  Then, FOR EACH FLOWER, answer the following questions:
  • Is the flower actinomorphic (regular) or zygomorphic (irregular)?
  • How many sepals are present?  Petals?  Stamens?  Carpels?  To count carpels, count the style branches and/or count the zones of placentation by cross- sectioning the ovary.
  • Is the ovary inferior or superior?
  • Is the flower from a monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous plant?
  • Is the flower perfect (both sexes present) or imperfect?  Complete (all four floral whorls) or incomplete?

Today’s Lab

  • Floral Origin, morphology and anatomy
  • Different types of flowers and inflorescence

Next week’s lab – Fruits

  • Quiz on Flowers