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ANKLE ANATOMY Spring High School Sports Medicine THE ANKLE JOINT The ankle joint is designed for weight bearing. It has great strength and stability due to the bone structure. It is a three-sided box-like joint. TALUS ANKLE BONE ANATOMY TIBIA 1 2 FIBULA 4 CALCANEUS 3 TIBIA

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ANKLE ANATOMY

Spring High School Sports Medicine

the ankle joint
THE ANKLE JOINT
  • The ankle joint is designed for weight bearing.
  • It has great strength and stability due to the bone structure.
  • It is a three-sided box-like joint.
ankle bone anatomy

TALUS

ANKLE BONE ANATOMY

TIBIA

1

2

FIBULA

4

CALCANEUS

3

tibia
TIBIA
  • The tibia commonly called the “shin bone”.
  • The proximal end of the tibia is part of the knee joint.
  • The distal end of the tibia sticks out under the skin and forms the medial malleolus.
  • LABEL AND COLOR THE TIBIA AND THE MEDIAL MALLEOLUS ON YOUR WORKSHEET.
fibula
FIBULA
  • The fibula is located on the outside of the lower leg.
  • The fibula is a non-weight bearing bone.
  • The distal end of the fibula is visible under the skin and is called the lateral malleolus.
  • LABEL AND COLOR THE FIBULA ON YOUR WORKSHEET
ankle bone anatomy6
ANKLE BONE ANATOMY

LATERAL MALLEOLUS

MEDIAL

MALLEOLUS

calcaneus
CALCANEUS
  • A common name for the calcaneus is the “heel”.
  • The calcaneus is an attachment place for many important lower leg muscles.
  • While running or walking, about half of the total weight of the body is supported by this bone.
talus
TALUS
  • The talus is a wedge-shaped bone located in between the tibia, fibula and calcaneus.
  • It is the fulcrum point from which the ankle joint is able to move.
talar joint
TALAR JOINT
  • No muscles attach to the talus – only ligaments and cartilage.
ankle motion
ANKLE MOTION
  • The ankle joint is a type of hinge joint.
  • Dorsiflexion and plantarflexion occur between the tibia and the talus.
ankle motion12
ANKLE MOTION
  • Inversion and eversion happens between the talus and the calcaneus.
ankle motion plantarflexion
ANKLE MOTIONPlantarflexion
  • Pointing the foot
  • Raising up on the toes.
  • Heel raises
  • Ankle Extension
ankle motion dorsiflexion
ANKLE MOTIONDorsiflexion
  • Pulling toes back.
  • Lifting toes up.
  • Stand on your heels.
  • Ankle Flexion
ankle motion inversion
ANKLE MOTIONInversion
  • Turning toes in.
  • Rolling foot under.
  • Walk on the outside of your feet.
  • “Bow-legged”
ankle motion eversion
ANKLE MOTIONEversion
  • Toes out.
  • Rolling foot out.
  • Walk on the inside of your feet.
ankle ligaments
ANKLE LIGAMENTS
  • Ligaments run from bone to bone.
  • Hold bones together.
  • Do not move joint!
  • Some are like cords. Some are thin and wide.
medial ankle ligaments
MEDIAL ANKLE LIGAMENTS

Deltoid Ligament Complex

ankle ligaments medial
ANKLE LIGAMENTS – MEDIAL
  • Deltoid Ligament Complex
    • 4 ligaments
    • Broad
    • Flat
    • Overlapping

= STRONG!

D

A

B

C

ankle ligaments lateral
ANKLE LIGAMENTS - LATERAL
  • Lateral Collateral Ligaments
    • ATF
      • Anterior
      • From Talus to Fibula
      • Weakest of 3 ligaments
    • PTF
      • Posterior
      • From Talus to Fibula
      • Strongest/Deepest of 3 ligaments
    • CF
      • Anterior
      • From Calcaneus to Fibula
      • Largest; Strong and Cord-like
ankle muscles lateral side
ANKLE MUSCLES: LATERAL SIDE
  • PERONEAL GROUP
    • 3 muscles (peroneus brevis/longus/tertius)
    • Muscle group starts @ top of Fibula
    • Peroneal tendon hooks around the back of Lateral Malleolus
    • Insertion of Peroneal Tendon is at the base of the 5th foot bone
  • Major Motion:

Eversion of the Foot @ the Ankle

ankle muscles posterior

ACHILLES TENDON

          • Large Tendon/Cord from Gastroc.
      • Inserts firmly at Calcaneus
      • Largest, Strongest Tendon in Body
      • Combination of Gastroc and Soleus Tendons
ANKLE MUSCLES: POSTERIOR
  • GASTROCNEMIUS
    • Muscle starts on distal femur
    • 1 muscle with two points of origin
    • Achilles Tendon is other attachment
    • Crosses two joints

Major Motion:

Plantarflexion @ the Ankle

ankle muscles anterior side
ANKLE MUSCLES: ANTERIOR SIDE
  • TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
    • Muscle starts @ top of Tibia
    • Tendon crosses over Ankle Joint @ Talus
    • Attaches at the base of the 1st foot bone
    • Cross over at joint allows for multiple motions
  • Major Motion:
    • Dorsiflexion of the ankle joint
    • Inversion of the foot
    • Prevents the forefoot slapping AND scrapping the ground