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Accreditation and Private Higher Education Development: A Comparison Between Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Pablo Landoni Couture Carlos Romero Rostagno Catholic University of Uruguay  November 2005. At the Crossroads of Trends. Private Higher Education Growth in Latin America.

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Accreditation and Private Higher Education Development:A Comparison Between Argentina, Chile and Uruguay

Pablo Landoni Couture

Carlos Romero Rostagno

Catholic University of Uruguay 

November 2005

at the crossroads of trends
At the Crossroads of Trends
  • Private Higher Education Growth in Latin America.
  • Increasing societal demand for accountability in higher education: Accreditation
    • Quality assurance
    • Authorization and accreditation
  • Interactions: proliferation and limits
private higher education evolution in latin america
Private Higher Education Evolution in Latin America
  • Origins: National Public Universities
  • Wave I: Catholic Universities
  • Wave II: Elite reaction
  • Wave III: Demand-absorbing institutions
private higher education evolution in latin america table 1

1950

2000

Growth

Country

Enrollment

Enrollment rate

Enrollment

Enrollment rate

Argentina

82,531

5.2 %

1,269,239

36 %

1438 %

Chile

9,528

1.7 %

(*) 452,347

26.7 %

4648 %

Uruguay

11,722

6.0%

79,678

32.5%

580 %

Private Higher Education Evolution in Latin America (Table 1)

Sources: For 1950 Schwartzman (1994); for 2000, Argentina Fernández Lamarra (2003), Chile Bernasconi (2003) and Uruguay AEE (2000). (*) Includes students from universities and professional institutes.

argentina public private distinctiveness

1970

2003

Public

Universities

University institutes

15

45

39

6

Private

Universities

University institutes

24

54

42

12

Total

39

99

Argentina: Public / Private Distinctiveness

Institutional Proliferation (Table 2)

Sources: For 1970 Cosentino (2003); for 2003 Caillon (2005)

argentina public private distinctiveness6

1993

2003

Growth

Enrollment

Share

Enrollment

Share

Public

675,000

85.7 %

1,278,284

85.6 %

89 %

Private

112,837

14.3 %

215,272

14.4 %

91 %

Total

787,837

100 %

1,493,556

100 %

89 %

Argentina: Public / Private Distinctiveness

Growth of Enrollments (Table 3)

Source: Caillon (2005)

chile at the forefront of market driven reforms

1980

2003

Public

2

16

Old private (publicly funded)

6

9

New Private

38

Total

8

63

Chile: at the Forefront of Market driven Reforms

Impact of Reform (Table 4)

Source: Bernasconi (2003)

chile at the forefront of market driven reforms8

1990

2000

Growth

Enrollment

Share

Enrollment

Share

Public

65,897

50 %

131,128

41 %

99 %

Traditional private

46,294

35 %

84,158

26 %

82 %

Private

19,509

15 %

103,805

33 %

432 %

Total

131,700

100 %

319,087

100 %

142 %

Chile: at the Forefront of Market driven Reforms

Increasing Private Share (Table 5)

Source: Bernasconi (2003)

uruguay recent private sector

1994

2003

Growth

Enrollment

Share

Enrollment

Share

Public

62,026

96.6 %

70,156

87,7 %

13 %

Private

2,147

3.4 %

9,791

12,3 %

356 %

Total

64,173

100 %

79,947

100 %

24 %

Uruguay: Recent Private Sector

Changing System (Table 6)

Source: Caillon (2005)

the wave of accreditation in the southern cone
The Wave of Accreditation in theSouthern Cone
  • Argentina: Concentration of Functions in an Agency (CONEAU)
  • Chile: Proliferation and State Reactions (Agencies: CSE, CNAP, CONAP)
  • Uruguay: Private authorization and Experimental Accreditation (CCETP and Commission)
  • MERCOSUR Experimental Accreditation Mechanism
argentina concentration of functions in an agency coneau

Provisional Authorizations

Permanent recognition

Proposals

Approved

Proposals

Approved

83

9

12

8

Argentina: Concentration of Functions in an Agency(CONEAU)
  • Institutional evaluation
  • Accreditation of new higher education institutions (Private and Public)
  • Program evaluation and accreditation (Graduate and Undergraduate levels)

Impacts on private proliferation (Table 7)

Sources: Fernández Lamarra (2004) and Caillon (2005).

chile proliferation and state reactions

Universities created before CSE (1980 - 1990)

43

Universities authorized by CSE (1990 - 2005)

10

Universities granted full autonomy

24

Universities closed by CSE

13

Chile: Proliferation and State Reactions
  • State approval of private institutions (CSE)
  • Undergraduate Programs Accreditation (CNAP)
  • Graduate Programs Accreditation (CONAP)
  • Institutional Accreditation (CNAP)

Impacts on private proliferation(Table 8)

Source: Lemaitre (2005)

uruguay private authorization and experimental accreditation

Proposals

Authorized

Rejected

Closed

Under review

23

14

5

1

3

Uruguay: Private Authorization and Experimental Accreditation
  • State approval of private institutions and programs (CCTEP)
  • MERCOSUR Experimental Accreditation (Accreditation Commission)

Impacts on private proliferation(Table 9)

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Education

summary of findings 1 common trends
Summary of Findings: (1) Common Trends
  • State involvement in the process of private higher education institution’s authorization: Impacts on proliferation
  • Continuous enrollment growth in the private sector.
  • Launching of Accreditation agencies.
state authorization of private higher education institutions impacts on proliferation table 10

Institutions created before Agency

Institutions authorized by agencies

Argentina (1990 – 1995)

CONEAU (1995)

22

9

Chile (1980 – 1990)

CSE (1990)

40

10

Uruguay (1985 – 1995)

CCETP (1995)

1

13

State Authorization of Private Higher Education Institutions: Impacts on Proliferation (Table 10)

Sources: Fernández Lamarra 2004; Lemaitre 2005: data provided by the Ministry of Education of Uruguay.

continuous enrollment growth in higher education including the private sector table 11

Private enrollment growth last decade

Last decade’s enrollment growth for the total system

Actual private enrollment share

Argentina

91%

89%

14.4%

Chile

182%

142%

59%

Uruguay

356%

24%

12.3%

Continuous Enrollment Growth in Higher Education, including the Private Sector (Table 11)

Sources: Tables 3, 5 and 6.

moving into accreditation the creation of accreditation agencies table 12

Argentina

Chile

Uruguay

Level

Agency / Status

Application

Agency / Status

Application

Agency / Status

Application

Institutional

CONEAU voluntary

Public and private autonomy

CNAP

voluntary

Public and private (autonomy)

Not available

Program

Undergraduate

Graduate

CONEAU

mandatory

CONEAU

mandatory

Public and private

(Only professions regulated by law)

Public and private

CNAP

voluntary

CONAP

voluntary

Public and private

Public and private

Commission

voluntary

MERCOSUR (3 programs)

Moving into Accreditation: the Creation of Accreditation Agencies (Table 12)
summary of findings 2 impacts of accreditation
Summary of Findings: (2) Impacts of Accreditation
  • Authorization constrained private institution’s proliferation – Coercive isomorphism.
  • Accreditation has limited impact on private growth and homogenization – Mimetic isomorphism.
  • Private institutions included accreditation in their strategy for legitimacy.
  • Policy implications: Unanticipated private development and State reactions.