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The Internet and World WideWeb
Except where otherwise noted, the contents of this presentation are Copyright 2009 Marty Stepp and JessicaMiller.
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A "series of tubes"(explanation)
How many internets are there, anyway? Is The Google one ofthem?
a connection of computer networks using the Internet Protocol(IP)
What's the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web(WWW)?
the Web is the collection of web sites and pages around the world; the Internet is larger and also includes other services such as email, chat, online games,etc.
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began as a US Department of Defense network called ARPANET (1960s-70s) initial services: electronic mail,filetransfer opened to commercial interestsin
late80s WWW created in 1989-91 byTimBerners-Lee popularweb browsers released: Netscape 1994, IE1995
Amazon.com opens in 1995; Google January 1996 Hamster Dance web page created in 1999
Key aspects of theinternet
subnetworks can stand on theirown
computers can dynamically join and leave thenetwork
built on open standards; anyone can create a new internet device lack of centralized control(mostly)
everyone can use it with simple, commonly availablesoftware
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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): internet protocol standards Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): decides top-level domainnames
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): webstandards
Layered architecture (1.1.3)
The internet uses a layered hardware/software architecture (also called the "OSI model"): physical layer : devices such as ethernet,coaxial
cables, fiber-optic lines,modems
data link layer : basic hardware protocols (ethernet, wifi, DSL PPP)
network / internet layer : basic software protocol(IP)
transport layer : adds reliability to network layer (TCP, UDP)
application layer : implements specific communication for each kind of program (HTTP, POP3/IMAP,SSH,
a simple protocol for attempting to send data between two computers each device has a 32-bit IP address written as four 8-bit numbers(0-255)
find out your internet IP address: whatismyip.com find out your local IPaddress:
in a terminal, type:ipconfig(Windows) orifconfig(Mac/Linux)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
adds multiplexing, guaranteed message delivery on top of IP multiplexing: multiple programs using the same IPaddress
port: a number given to each program orservice
port 80: web browser (port 443 for secure browsing) port 25: email
port 22: ssh
port 5190: AOL Instant Messenger more commonports
some programs (games, streaming media programs) use simpler UDP protocol instead ofTCP
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Web servers and browsers(1.2.1)
web server: software that listens for web page requests Apache
Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) (part of Windows) web browser: fetches/displays documents from web servers
Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) Apple Safari
a set of servers that map written names to IPaddresses
many systems maintain a local cache called a hostsfile
Uniform Resource Locator(URL)
an identifier for the location of a document on a web site a basic URL:
upon entering this URL into the browser, itwould:
ask the DNS server for the IP address ofwww.aw-bc.com
connect to that IP address at port80
ask the server to GET/info/regesstepp/index.html
display the resulting page on the screen
anchor: jumps to a given section of a webpage
fetches index.htmlthen jumps down to part of the page labeled downloads
port: for web servers on ports other than the default80
query string: a set of parameters passed to a webprogram
parameter qis set to "miserable+failure"
parameter startis set to 10
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)(1.2.3)
the set of commands understood by a web server and sent from a browser some HTTP commands (your browser sends theseinternally):
GET filename : download
POST filename : send a web formresponse
PUT filename : upload
simulating a browser with a terminalwindow:
$ telnetwww.cs.washington.edu 80 Trying18.104.22.168...
Connected to 22.214.171.124(126.96.36.199).
Escape character is'^]'.
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0
when something goes wrong, the web server returns a special "error code" number to the browser, possibly followed by an HTMLdocument
Internet media ("MIME") types
sometimes when including resources in a page (style sheet, icon, multimedia object), we specify their type ofdata
Lists of MIME types: by type, byextension
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): used for writing web pages Cascading Style Sheets (CSS): stylistic info for webpages
PHP Hypertext Processor (PHP): dynamically create pages on a webserver