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Summer Institute 2006: August 23-30, 2006 APTCP, Pohang, Korea. Affleck-Dine Leptogenesis induced by the Flaton of Thermal Inflation. Based on JHEP 0411:046,2004(hep-ph/0406136). Wan-il Park. KAIST. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. Contents. Introduction Motivation

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affleck dine leptogenesis induced by the flaton of thermal inflation

Summer Institute 2006: August 23-30, 2006 APTCP, Pohang, Korea

Affleck-Dine Leptogenesis induced by the Flaton of Thermal Inflation

Based on

JHEP 0411:046,2004(hep-ph/0406136)

Wan-il Park

KAIST

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

contents
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Motivation
  • Model
  • Dynamics
  • Summary & Conclusion
introduction

Inflation

Introduction
  • Matter-antimatter asymmetry
  • Observed asymmetry

}

  • Direct measurement (galaxy survey)
  • Abundances of light elements (BBN)
  • Density perturbation (CMBR)

- Is this given as initial condition of universe?

  • Dynamical generation of asymmetry is required after inflation: Baryogenesis !!!
slide4

Introduction

  • Basic ingredients of baryogenesis (Sakharov, 1967)
  • Baryon number violation
  • C and CP-violation
  • Departure from thermal equilibrium
  • Several types of baryogenesis
  • GUTbaryogenesis, leptogenesis (Yoshimura, 1978; Fukugita and Yanagida, 1986)
  • uses heavyparticledecay
  • → very high energy scale ~ GUT scale
  • Electroweak baryogenesis (Kuzmin, Rubakov and Shaposhnikov, 1985)
  • uses sphaleron, electroweak phase transition
  • → around electroweak scale, minimal extension of SM
  • Affleck-Dine(AD) baryogenesis (Affleck and Dine, 1985)
  • uses MSSM-flat directions
  • → intermediate scale, very simple and efficient
slide5

Introduction

  • Unwanted relics produced after inflation (gravitino, moduli problem)
  • Unwanted? Why?

- Large enery density → “over closing” universe

- Long life time with large number density → disturbing successful BBN, etc.

* Primordial inflation can dilute sufficiently some heavy unwanted relics,

for example, monopoles

  • Properties

- Small mass→ thermal reproduction after reheating

- Gravitationally suppressed weak coupling → late time decay or stable

  • Gravitino problem (Khlopov and Linde, 1984; etc.)
slide6

* Initial abundance

?

<

>

~

~

* Observational constraint

Introduction

  • Moduli problem

(Coughlan, et. al., 1983; etc.)

Large entropy release is required

slide7

due to thermal mass

inflation!

→ Low scale

→ small number of e-folds

Thermal Inflation

* Dilution factor:

Introduction

* Thermal inflation

(Lyth and Stewart, 1995)

motivation

1. GUT baryogenesis & leptogenesis

2. Affleck-Dine baryogenesis

Thermal

Inflation

Electroweak baryogenesis

Flaton decay

  • Too low temperature
  • no baryogenesis mechanism can work

New model

?

Motivation
  • Incompatibility between thermal inflation and baryogenesis

Coherent oscillation of moduli field

slide9

Motivation

  • The required features for new model
  • Working era: after thermal inflation to avoid dilution,
  • before flaton decay to avoid too low energy scale

- Efficiency: efficient from dilution by entropy release due to flaton decay

=> Proper base of new model = Affleck-Dine mechanismdue to its efficiency

* Affleck-Dine mechanism

Angular momentum = charge asymmetry

- Setting initial condition: Hubble terms due to SUSY-breaking effect of finite energy of early universe

model
Model
  • MSSM superpotential
  • Our superpotential

-term

Neutrino mass term

Flaton self interaction term

with

(D. Jeong, K. Kadota, W. I. Park and E. D. Stewart, 2004)

  • Superpotential, W
slide11

Model

  • Ansatz & Potential
  • Ansatz :Only and flaton have nonzero values
  • Simplification : Consideration of just single generation
  • Potential :

where

dynamics
Dynamics

-

: is unstable at the end of thermal inflation

-

: is unstable near the end of thermal inflation

- rolls away first, then

  • Key assumptions

- All fields are held at origin initially due to thermal effect

slide13

2b. becomes nonzero,

→ stabilizes dangerous directions

1a. rolls away

1c. Fixes initial phase of

2a. rolls away

2c. Fixes phase of

3c. Stabilizes

3a. Brings back into origin

1b. Stabilizes

3b. Rotates the phase of

Dynamics

slide15

?

Dynamics

  • Potential problems
  • Problem due to

MSSM

  • Deeper non-MSSM minima do exist
  • (see “Casas, Lleyda and Munoz, 1995”)

Non-MSSM

  • Way of resolution

- Avoiding being trapped : dynamical settling down in our vacuum

- Stability of our vacuum : τ > 1/H

τ = the time scale for quantum tunnelling to the minima

1/H = the age of our universe

  • How about our model?

- Stability of our vacuum :

τ > 1/H in large enough parameter space

(see “Kusenko, Langacker and Segre, 1996”)

slide16

deeper non-MSSM minimum exists with nonzero

but

Give terms linearin

Gives large mass to q

Gives negative mass squared to q

where

Dynamics

- Avoiding being trapped:

  • All the fields settle down in our vacuum!!!
slide17

Dynamics

  • Simulation results (homogeneous mode)

Dynamics of AD-field

Lepton number asymmetry

slide18

decay when field passes near the origin

Dynamics

  • Preserving lepton asymmetry

Damping

Preheating:

energy transfer from homogeneous modes to inhomogeneous modes

Thermal friction:

slide19

to

to

<

<

~

~

Dynamics

  • Estimation of baryon asymmetry

{

we expect

summary conclusion
Summary & Conclusion
  • becomes nonzero
  • stabilizes dangerous directions
  • Brief history of thermal inflation

Moduli

Domination

held at origin

held at origin

held at origin

Thermal

Inflation

rolls away

  • rolls away
  • ends thermal inflaton

reaches its VEV

  • brought back into origin with phase rotation
  • generation of L-asymmetry

Flaton

Domination

  • decays
  • partial reheating
  • EW symmetry restoration
  • L-asymmetry → B-asymmetry

oscillates

decays

B-asymmetry diluted but survives

Radiation

Domination

radiation domination

BBN

slide22

Summary & Conclusion

  • Conclusions
  • Baryogenesis compatible with thermal inflation was proposed.
  • Fairly minimal in the sense of particle physics theory.
  • Unique in the context of gravity mediated SUSY breaking and thermal inflation.
  • Flaton generated the -term and triggered the generation of lepton asymmetry.
  • Complete analysis of the damping of field is required as future work.
  • Our vacuum is unstable, but cosmological evolution leads to our vacuum.
  • can be tested at future particle accelerators.
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