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Exploring the Universe. 8th Grade Science School Year 2003-2004 Luther Burbank School Mr. Frank Canzolino Room 204. 8 th Grade Science. Week 15.1 Day 71 Monday December 1, 2003. Light Years Measuring Unimaginable Distances.

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exploring the universe

Exploring the Universe

8th Grade Science

School Year 2003-2004

Luther Burbank School

Mr. Frank Canzolino Room 204

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

8 th grade science
8th Grade Science
  • Week 15.1
  • Day 71
  • Monday
  • December 1, 2003

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

light years measuring unimaginable distances
Light YearsMeasuring Unimaginable Distances
  • Once you look beyond our solar system, objects are so far away it takes more than hours or even days for light to reach us. We’re seeing objects as they looked years ago.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

think big
Think Big
  • Imagine that you could hop aboard a spaceship that traveled the speed of light. Well, you’ll have to imagine it, because it’s impossible—but that’s what imagination is for!

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

think big1
Think Big
  • So all aboard the Seeker 2000, bound for the outer edges of the universe. You can help by figuring out how far you’ll go and how long it will take to reach different places.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

think big2
Think Big
  • Like all astronomers, you\'ll need sharp math skills to determine distances in space, so grab a calculator and let\'s go!

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

think big3
Think Big
  • Note: Long division is boring once you know how to do it, so use a pocket calculator if you can. You can round off all the answers to the first two digits.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

think big4
Think Big
  • A million is 1 followed by six zeros (1,000,000), a billion has nine zeros (1,000,000,000), and a trillion has 12 zeros (1,000,000,000,000).

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

think big5
Think Big
  • Light travels at 186,000 miles per second everywhere in the universe. The Earth is about 24,000 miles in circumference. How long would it take a beam of light to circle the Earth?
  • A.) 0.13 seconds      B.) 7.75 seconds      C.) 13 seconds

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

think big6
Think Big
  • Light travels at 186,000 miles per second everywhere in the universe. The Earth is about 24,000 miles in circumference. How long would it take a beam of light to circle the Earth?
  • A.) 0.13 seconds      B.) 7.75 seconds      C.) 13 seconds

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

think big7
Think Big
  • That’s right! It would take a beam of light 0.13 seconds to circle the Earth—no more than the blink of an eye! Our spacecraft, Seeker 2000, has blasted off from Earth and is traveling through the solar system.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

homework
Homework
  • Review and Reinforcement Guide
    • Section 1-2

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

8 th grade science1
8th Grade Science
  • Week 15.2
  • Day 72
  • Tuesday
  • December 2, 2003

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

homework1
Homework
  • Review and Reinforcement Guide
    • Section 1-2
  • Will be collected Thursday

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations
Constellations
  • For ages people have looked into the sky and tried to make sense of what they saw
  • People tried to look for patterns and fit those patterns into their daily lives and into their belief systems

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations1
Constellations
  • How many Stars can we see with the naked eyed?
    • A few million million million
    • A few thousand
    • Infinite
    • A few hundred thousand

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations2
Constellations
  • In late July 2003, the number of stars was estimated to be:
    • 70 sextillion
    • 70 million million million
    • 7 x 1022
    • 70,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
  • About 10 times the number of grains of sand on all of the Earth’s beaches and deserts
  • The average person on a clear night can see about 3000.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations3
Constellations
  • Constellations are not real– not physical.
  • Constellations–only a visual grouping of stars
    • Ancient times–named after gods, heroes, and animals
    • Modern times–88 constellations with well defined boundaries.
  • Asterism–a smaller group of stars
    • Usually represent an easily defined pattern in the sky.
    • The Big Dipper
    • The Great Square of Pegasus
  • Stars labeled in order of brightness (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, etc.)

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations4
Constellations
  • For stars, ancient people came up with an organizing system called constellations

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

angular sizes
Angular Sizes

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

angular sizes1
Angular Sizes
  • 1 circle = 360º
  • 1 degree = 60 minutes
  • Diameter of sun and moon about 1/2 degree
  • 1 minute = 60 arcseconds
    • 1 arcsecond is the angular size of a dime about 2.5 miles awat
  • Earth rotates at 360º/24 hours or 15º/hour

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations5
Constellations
  • Who invented the constellations that we know?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations6
Constellations
  • How many constellations are there?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations7
Constellations
  • What organizing systems did other cultures see and use and for what purpose?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations8
Constellations

Orion

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations9
Constellations
  • Are all the stars in a constellation the same distance from us?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations10
Constellations
  • The constellations would look very different if the Earth was somewhere else. In fact many of the stars that we see in a constellation are far away from each other.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations11
Constellations
  • Is Polaris the brightest star in the sky?
  • How would you go about finding out?

Polaris

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations12
Constellations
  • If we took a time-lapse photo of the starry night sky toward the North Star, what would it look like?
    • As the stars are so far away, they appear fixed, so we’ll see a bunch of bright dots.
    • As viewed from the Earth, each star moves differently, so each star will make little circles on the sky.
    • As the Earth rotates the stars seem to rise in the East and set in the West, so we’ll see circles centered around the North Star.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations13
Constellations
  • Earth rotation causes daily motion, also called diurnal motion.
  • “Rise in the West and set in the East” is actually the Earth’s motion.
  • The Sun, Moon, planets, and stars all follow this motion.
  • Where is Polaris in this picture?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations14
Constellations
  • Looking toward the South Celestial Pole
  • Where is Polaris in this picture?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations15
Constellations
  • Photograph from Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Africa, which is at 3 Degrees South Latitude
  • Where is Polaris here?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations16
Constellations
  • Put all of the stars on a transparent globe (the Celestial Sphere).
  • The Earth’s North Pole is under the North Celestial Pole.
  • The Earth’s South Pole is under the South Celestial Pole.
  • The Earth’s equator is under the Celestial equator.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations17
Constellations
  • Zenith–the point directly above the observer
  • Horizon–the imaginary line that marks the intersection of Earth and Sky.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations18
Constellations
  • Do the distances between the stars in a constellation appear to change?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations19
Constellations
  • Are constellations permanent?

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations20
Constellations
  • Are constellations still useful today?
    • To us
    • To astronomers

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations21
Constellations
  • Really the stars are not fixed to a transparent sphere.
  • It is a good approximation for “naked-eye” astronomy because the stars are REALLY far away– more than 25 trillion miles.
  • BUT, the stars do move with respect to each other.
  • Nonetheless, the celestial sphere is useful for finding your way around the skies.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

8 th grade science2
8th Grade Science
  • Week 15.3
  • Day 73
  • Wednesday
  • December 3, 2003

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

computer lab project constellations
Draw a picture of your constellation. Label the major stars.

Use construction paper to punch out your constellation so we can project it

Research the following items

Which culture does your constellation’s name come from.

Do other cultures have a name for your constellation and if so, identify the culture and its name for the constellation

What are the myth(s) behind your culture(s) constellation

Computer Lab ProjectConstellations

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

computer lab project constellations1
Are all the stars in your constellation the same distance from earth

Name some past uses of constellations, why were they important to ancient cultures

Are constellations still useful today?

To us

To astronomers

Is Polaris the brightest star in the sky? If not, what are the first, second, third and fourth brightest

Are constellations permanent? Have there been any changes to your constellation that astronomers know about

Computer Lab ProjectConstellations

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations the big dipper in other cultures
Germany: "Grosse Wagen" Big wagon

China: the "Jade Balance of Fate" and/or special chariot for emperor of the heavens.

Greeks/Homer: a bear and a wagon

First nations people: a bear or a fisher (a carnivorous animal of northern North America; like a marten)

Basque: two oxen, two thieves, servant housekeeper and master

Arabian: a coffin and mourners

Medieval England: King Arthur\'s Chariot

British: the Plough

Southern France: Saucepan

ConstellationsThe Big Dipper in Other Cultures

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellations the big dipper in other cultures1
Skidi Pawnee Indians: a stretcher on which a sick man was carried

Ancient Maya: a mythological parrot - Seven Macaw

Hindu: Seven Rishis, or Wise men

Micmac Indians of Canada\'s Maritimes: a bear

19th Century: a symbol of freedom for runaway slaves who "followed the Drinking Gourd" to the northern states since the Big Dipper is always in the northern part of the sky.

Irish: King David\'s Chariot

ConstellationsThe Big Dipper in Other Cultures

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

computer lab project constellations2
Computer Lab ProjectConstellations
  • These sites give background information about the constellations and the legends behind them.
    • http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mythology/mythology.html
    • http://www.iolaks.com/softech/astro/astro3.htm
    • http://www.learnwhatsup.com/prc/space/constellations.html
    • http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/const.html
    • http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/Course/Labs/nightsky/nightsky.html
    • http://www.proteacher.com/cgi-bin/outsidesite.cgi?external=http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow9/dec98/lesson.htm&original=http://www.proteacher.com/110020.shtml&title=Cosmic%20Lessons

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

8 th grade science3
8th Grade Science
  • Week 15.4
  • Day 74
  • Thursday
  • December 4, 2003

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

constellation project
Constellation Project
  • Project Report Due Wednesday, December 10, 2003
  • Each question on the handout must be answered
  • Construction Paper constellation must be attached

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

8 th grade science4
8th Grade Science
  • Week 15.5
  • Day 75
  • Friday
  • December 5, 2003

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

the early astronomers
The Early Astronomers
  • Greeks were excellent astronomers
    • Cataloged star positions, brightness
    • systematic, quantitative observations
  • They observed that the stars, Sun, and planets revolved around the Earth.
  • So Earth is center of Universe- geocentric cosmology

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astromomers
Early Astromomers
  • For most of Western Civilization it was believed that we lived in a geocentric cosmology.
  • Earth centered (everything else revolved around us)
  • Could not explain all the motion of the planets

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers ptolemy
Early AstronomersPtolemy
  • Ptolemy lived in Alexandria (in Egypt) from approx. 87 -150 AD. Very little is known about his personal life (the image above is probably purely the artist\'s imagination)

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers ptolemy1
Early AstronomersPtolemy
  • He was an astronomer, mathematician and geographer. He codified the Greek geocentric view of the universe, and rationalized the apparent motions of the planets as they were known in his time.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers ptolemy2
Early AstronomersPtolemy
  • In addition to his well known works in astronomy, Ptolemy was very important in the history of geography and cartography. Ptolemy of course knew that the Earth is a sphere.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early early astronomers ptolemy
Early Early AstronomersPtolemy
  • Ptolemy\'s is the first known projection of the sphere onto a plane. HisGeography remained the principal work on the subject until thetime of Columbus. But he had Asia extending much too far east, which may have been a factor in Columbus\'s decision to sail west for the Indies.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers ptolemy3
Early AstronomersPtolemy
  • Took geocentric model with uniform circular motion to introduce the Ptolemaic system, or model, of the Solar System that better explained the motions of the planets

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers ptolemy4
Early AstronomersPtolemy
  • Each planet acted independently of others
  • There was no universal rule governing the planets motion
  • Nonetheless, for a 1000 years this model ruled western thought
  • However, by the late middle-ages astronomers felt that it was too complex, and a search began for a system with simple underlying principles

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers copernicus
Early AstronomersCopernicus
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543
  • Before the 16th century, the common belief was that the sun and all the other planets revolved around the Earth. This theory had been developed by the ancient Greek astronomer Ptolemy around A.D. 150, but the Polish astronomer Copernicus found that the Ptolemaic system could not explain the observed motions of the planets.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers copernicus1
Early AstronomersCopernicus
  • In 1543, he published a book called The Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs, which argued that the Earth was not the center of the universe but was one of the planets and, like them, revolved around the sun. This model of the solar system is known as the Copernican system.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers copernicus2
Early AstronomersCopernicus
  • Copernicus also said that the Earth spins on its axis once per day, which accounts for why the sky appears to revolve around the Earth.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers copernicus3
Early AstronomersCopernicus
  • Copernicus’s theory explained why superior planets—those further from the sun than Earth—sometimes appear to be moving backward (in retrograde motion) with respect to the stars, while those closest to the sun—Mercury and Venus—always appear to move in only one direction

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers copernicus4
Early AstronomersCopernicus
  • The Earth is moving in a faster orbit around the sun than the more distant planets—periodically “passing” them, making them appear to move backward. But Mercury and Venus are moving in even faster orbits closer to the sun. Copernicus was right about the basic arrangement of the solar system, but he had no real proof.

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers copernicus5
Early AstronomersCopernicus

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

early astronomers copernicus6
Early AstronomersCopernicus
  • Can explain retrograde motion

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

8 th grade science5
8th Grade Science
  • Week 16.1
  • Day 76
  • Monday
  • December 8, 2003

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

exploring the universe vocabulary chapter 1
Binary Stars (Multiple-star systems)

Constellations

Novas

Star Clusters

Nebulae

Galaxies

The Milky Way

Spectroscope

Red Shift (Doppler Effect)

Big-bang theory

Open universe

Closed universe

Quasars

Exploring the UniverseVocabulary–Chapter 1

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

exploring the universe vocabulary chapter 11
Stars

Size

Composition

Surface temperature

Brightness

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Parallax

Nuclear fusion

Our Sun

Corona

Chromosphere

Protosphere

Core

Promineces

Solar Flares

Solar Wind

Sunspots

Exploring the UniverseVocabulary–Chapter 1

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

exploring the universe vocabulary chapter 12
Protostars

Medium-sized Stars

White Dwarf

Massive Star

Supernova

Neutron Star

Pulsar

Black Hole

Exploring the UniverseVocabulary–Chapter 1

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

exploring the universe vocabulary chapter 2
Solar Systems

Sun formation

Planet formation

Planetary motion

Orbits

Elliptical

Inertia and Gravity

Period of revolution

Period of rotation

Our Solar System

Mercury

Venus

Earth

Mars

Asteroid belt

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune

Pluto

Planet X

Exploring the UniverseVocabulary–Chapter 2

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

exploring the universe vocabulary chapter 21
Meteroroids

Meteors

Meteorites

Rocketry

Escape velocity

Space probes

Exploring the UniverseVocabulary–Chapter 2

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

exploring the universe vocabulary chapter 3
Earth’s Day and Night

Earth’s year

Earth’s seasons

Summer solstice

Winter solstice

Vernal (Spring) equinox

Autumnal (Fall) equinox

Magnetosphere

Van Allen Belt

The Moon

Perigee

Apogee

Phases

Eclipse

Solar

Lunar

Tides

Neap

Exploring the UniverseVocabulary–Chapter 3

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

parallax
Parallax
  • A shift in the position of an object when it is viewed from different angles
  • Can cause error in measurement
  • Can also be used to measure distances

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

parallax1
Parallax

Universe Chapter 1–Week 15.ppt

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