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Parkinson’s Law. Workers adjust their pace to the work available (If there’s less work, they’ll work more slowly…). Intended Message Perceived Message. Barriers to communication. Prior expectations ; different starting points (prior knowledge / experience ) Inaccurate inferences

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parkinson s law
Parkinson’s Law

Workers adjust their pace to the work available

(If there’s less work, they’ll work more slowly…)

barriers to communication
Barriers to communication
  • Prior expectations; different starting points (prior knowledge/experience)
  • Inaccurate inferences
  • Differing perceptions of words
  • Conflicting information
  • Noise
    • physical
    • emotional
barriers to communication1
Barriers to communication
  • Forgetfulness
  • Information overload
  • Haste in prepping message
  • Ignoring nonverbal cues
  • Close-mindedness; intolerance
  • Poor listening habits
  • Learning philosophy: “Ways of Knowing”
ways of knowing
Ways of Knowing
  • Received knowers
  • Subjective knowers
  • Procedural knowers
  • Constructed knowers
received knowers
Received Knowers

“Knowers who depend on listening and external authority for knowledge…”

  • rote-mode learning
  • learn from experts
  • information is right or wrong
subjective knowers
Subjective Knowers

“Knowers who depend entirely on internal resources for valuing and knowing…”

  • experiential learning
  • knowledge is personal and private
  • feelings are important
  • often reject “expert” authority
procedural knowers
Procedural Knowers

“Knowers who obtain knowledge by applying objective, logical, rational procedures…”

  • need to see evidence
  • reason and common sense valued highly
  • knowledge is impersonal
  • experts only as good as their arguments
constructed knowers
Constructed Knowers

“Knowers who construct their own meaning. Knowledge is contextual; subjective and objective ways of knowing are integrated…”

  • complex, balanced approach
  • knowledge is constructed
  • value and integrate expert advice, feelings, personal experience, reason
improving communication as senders
Improving Communication as Senders
  • Know the audience
  • Adjust message to their prior knowledge, experience, readiness, literacy
  • Adjust to their way of knowing
    • establish expertise
    • provide hands-on activities
    • provide relevant examples
    • show logic
  • Personalize message
improving communication as senders1
Improving Communication as Senders
  • Test: formative evaluation
  • Proofread!!
  • Get someone else to proofread!
    • Spellcheck, but don’t rely on spellcheck

“The demonstrators were attached by vicious policy dogs…”

slide12

“I have a spelling checker,It came with my PC;It plainly marks four my revueMistakes I cannot sea.I’ve run this poem threw it,I’m sure your please too no,Its letter perfect in it’s weight,My checker tolled me sew.--Author unknownSource: Hope Health Letter, Sept. 1992

writing for low literate readers
Writing for Low Literate Readers
  • Carefully craft your sentences, paragraphs
    • use simple words
    • active, not passive voice
    • be positive, not negative
    • use organizing strategies: headings, grouped information, highlighted info
writing for low literate readers1
Writing for Low Literate Readers
  • Watch your style
    • useful pictures
    • NOT ALL CAPS
    • use text and white space purposefully
  • Stick to what is important
    • be concrete, not abstract
    • give examples
active learning
Active Learning

Actual experience

Simulations, role-playing

90% of say & do

Evaluate, analyze, create, design

Give a talk

Discussion participation

70% of say

See demo

Field trip, exhibits, videos

50% of hear & see

Demonstrate, apply, practice

View charts,

photos

30% of see

Hear

Define, describe, list, explain

20% of hear

Read

10% of read

T 16-1, p. 523

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