Ap biology chapter 1
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AP Biology Chapter 1. A View of Life. Biology - the study of life. Constantly changing Increasing quality of life Drastically changing health care New discoveries daily Technology. Themes of Biology. Evolution of life Diverse life forms are related Transmission of information

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AP Biology Chapter 1

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Ap biology chapter 1

AP Biology Chapter 1

A View of Life


Biology the study of life

Biology - the study of life

  • Constantly changing

  • Increasing quality of life

  • Drastically changing health care

  • New discoveries daily

  • Technology


Themes of biology

Themes of Biology

  • Evolution of life

    • Diverse life forms are related

  • Transmission of information

    • DNA, Chemical signaling

  • Flow of energy through living systems

    • Energy constantly required to maintain complex processes


Characteristics of organisms

Characteristics of Organisms

  • Cells – organisms are made of one or more cells

    • Cell Theory:

      • All living organisms are composed of cells

      • New cells arise from existing cells

      • Cells are basic unit of structure and function of living things

    • Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow

  • **Cell Theory Video


Characteristics of organisms1

Characteristics of Organisms

  • Organisms grow and develop

    • Biological growth - increase in the size of cells or the number of cells

      • Growth may be uniform or greater in some parts than others

    • Development - all the changes that take place during an organism's life


Characteristics of organisms2

Characteristics of Organisms

  • Metabolism - the sum of all the chemical activities of the organism

    • Processes occur continuously in every living organism

    • Must be carefully regulated to maintain homeostasis

    • Homeostatic mechanisms are control systems that maintain constant levels of cellular products in the organism

      • Example - regulation of glucose in the blood of complex animals


Ap biology chapter 1

  • Heterotrophs – organism that obtains food by consuming other living organisms

  • Autotrophs – organism that makes its own food

    • Photosynthesis

    • Chemosynthesis

  • **Metabolism Video Clip


Characteristics of organisms3

Characteristics of Organisms

  • Movement - basic property of cells

  • Many varieties of movement

    • Extensions such as cilia (hairlike) and flagella (longer structures)

    • Animals move obviously (swim, crawl, run, fly) - have complex tissues for movement = muscles!

    • Even plants move toward the sun or trap insects


Characteristics of organisms4

Characteristics of Organisms

  • Organisms respond to stimuli

    • Stimuli that evoke a response in organisms:

      • Changes in light intensity, direction, or color

      • Changes in temperature, pressure, or sound

      • Changes in the chemical composition of the surrounding soil, air, or water

      • Plants respond to stimuli too!


Characteristics of organisms5

Characteristics of Organisms

  • Reproduction

    • Asexual - exact copy of parent, ex. bacteria

    • Sexual - egg and sperm cells combine to form a fertilized egg, provides genetic variation

      • Can be internal or external fertilization


Characteristics of organisms6

Characteristics of Organisms

  • Adaptations

    • Adaptations are traits that enhance an organism's ability to survive

    • Every organism is a complex collection of coordinated adaptations produced through evolutionary processes


Transmission of information

Transmission of Information

  • Instructions are needed to carry out life processes

  • DNA - genetic material

    • Watson and Crick, 1953

    • Makes up genes - the hereditary units

    • Used to specify instructions for making every living organism


Transmission of information1

Transmission of Information

  • DNA contains the information to make all the proteins needed by an organism

    • Proteins determine the structure and function of cells and tissues

  • Cells also use proteins to communicate with one another

    • Cell signaling

    • *Learning to manipulate cell signaling may lead to new discoveries in the medicine.


Chemical transmission of information

Chemical Transmission of Information

  • Hormones - molecules that function as chemical messengers that transmit information from one part of an organism to another

    • Can signal cells to produce a protein or other substance


Electrical transmission of information

Electrical Transmission of Information

  • Nervous Systems

    • Electrical Impulses

    • Neurotransmitters - chemical compounds

    • Ex. Transmit message from eyes and ears to the brain


Biological organization

Hierarchical

At every level, structure and function are coordinated

Solomon p.9

Chemical – atoms

Molecule – atoms combine

Cell – atoms and molecules form cells (basic structure of living things)

Tissue – cells working together

Organ – tissues organized

Organ System – group of tissues and organs

Organism – organ systems working together

Biological Organization

Smallest

Largest


Ecological organization

Ecological Organization

  • Population – all the members of one species that live in the same geographic area at the same time

  • Community – the populations of organisms that inhabit a particular area and interact with one another

    • Can be hundreds of different organisms


Ecological organization1

Ecological Organization

  • Ecosystem – a community together with its nonliving environment

    • Can vary greatly in size

  • Biosphere – all of Earth’s ecosystems together

  • Ecology – the study of how organisms relate to one another and to their environment


Evolutionary relationships

Evolutionary Relationships

  • Systematics – studies evolutionary relationships

  • Taxonomy – the science of naming and classifying organisms

  • Binomial nomenclature – each species is assigned a two-part name

    • 1st part of name = genus

    • 2nd part of name = specific epithet


Taxonomic classification

Taxonomic Classification

  • Remember: King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti

  • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Specific epithet

    • See page 11 (table 1-1)

  • 3 domains: Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya

  • 6 kingdoms: Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protista Archaebacteria, Eubacteria


Evolution is the primary unifying concept of biology

Evolution is the primary unifying concept of biology

  • Theory of evolution explains how populations change over time

  • Natural Selection – mechanism by which evolution proceeds

    • Organisms that possess favorable adaptations to their environment survive and pass on genes to next generation


Biology is studied using the scientific method

Biology is Studied using the Scientific Method

  • Involves a series of ordered steps and is the framework used by scientists

  • Scientists make careful observations, ask critical questions, and develop hypotheses

  • Then, scientists make predictions, test their predictions, interpret results, and draw conclusions

  • See page 17 (figure 1-16)


Scientific method

Scientific Method

  • A properly designed experiment includes: a control group and experimental group

    • Only differ with respect to the variable being studied

  • Must be free of bias!


Scientific method1

Scientific Method

  • When a number of related hypotheses have been supported many times, scientists develop a theory

    • A theory is a well researched and supported scientific statement.


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