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SIMPLE MACHINES

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simple machines

One of six basic types of machines which are basis for all other forms of machines.

have a rigid arm and a fulcrum.

six types divided into two families.

fulcrum located between points of application of input and output forces.

seesaw

- fulcrum is at one end of arm and input force is applied to other end.
- wheelbarrow

- multiply distance rather than force.
- have a mechanical advantage of less than 1.
- arm

- modified levers.
- point in middle of a pulley is like fulcrum of a lever.
- single, fixed pulley has a m. a. of 1.
block and tackle:

- Multiple pulleys working together

a lever or pulley connected to a shaft.

steering wheel of a car, screwdrivers, and cranks

multiply and redirect force.

turns small input force into large output force by spreading work out over a large distance.

Changes both magnitude & direction of force

Functions as two inclined planes back to back.

Turns single downward force into two forces directed out to sides.

an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder.

Chapter 12

- machine made of more than one simple machine
Examples :

scissors

- two first class levers joined at a common fulcrum
car jack

- combination of lever with a large screw