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SIMPLE MACHINES. THE LEVER FAMILY. simple machines One of six basic types of machines which are basis for all other forms of machines. have a rigid arm and a fulcrum. six types divided into two families. FIRST CLASS LEVERS.

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The lever family
THE LEVER FAMILY

simple machines

One of six basic types of machines which are basis for all other forms of machines.

have a rigid arm and a fulcrum.

six types divided into two families.


First class levers
FIRST CLASS LEVERS

fulcrum located between points of application of input and output forces.

seesaw


Second class levers
SECOND CLASS LEVERS

  • fulcrum is at one end of arm and input force is applied to other end.

  • wheelbarrow


Third class levers
THIRD CLASS LEVERS

  • multiply distance rather than force.

  • have a mechanical advantage of less than 1.

  • arm


Pulleys
PULLEYS

  • modified levers.

  • point in middle of a pulley is like fulcrum of a lever.

  • single, fixed pulley has a m. a. of 1.

    block and tackle:

  • Multiple pulleys working together



Wheel axle
WHEEL & AXLE

a lever or pulley connected to a shaft.

steering wheel of a car, screwdrivers, and cranks


The inclined plane family
THE INCLINED PLANE FAMILY

multiply and redirect force.

turns small input force into large output force by spreading work out over a large distance.


Simple inclined plane
SIMPLE INCLINED PLANE

Changes both magnitude & direction of force


Wedge
WEDGE

Functions as two inclined planes back to back.

Turns single downward force into two forces directed out to sides.


Screw
SCREW

an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder.


Compound machines

Chapter 12

COMPOUND MACHINES

  • machine made of more than one simple machine

    Examples :

    scissors

  • two first class levers joined at a common fulcrum

    car jack

  • combination of lever with a large screw


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