Early childhood
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Early Childhood. Chapter 7-8 Psyc311 Jen Wright. body development. Eating habits 2-6 year olds eat less than infants and older children. “Just right” phenomenon – picky eaters! Like: salty/sweet foods Dislike: bitter/sour foods Learning what is appropriate and not appropriate to eat

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Early Childhood

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Early childhood

Early Childhood

Chapter 7-8

Psyc311

Jen Wright


Body development

body development

  • Eating habits

  • 2-6 year olds eat less than infants and older children.

  • “Just right” phenomenon – picky eaters!

    • Like: salty/sweet foods

    • Dislike: bitter/sour foods

  • Learning what is appropriate and not appropriate to eat

  • Early signs of disgust

    • Infants show “disgust” facial expression

    • Strong food preferences


Role of disgust

Role of disgust

  • Higher order cognition evolved

  • Protection against dangerous substances

    • Infants: facial expression associated with rejection of food they dislike

      • Poisonous foods often bitter

      • Rotten foods often sour

    • Facial expression also functions as warning

  • Protection against contamination

    • Children not sensitive to contamination until early childhood

  • Protection against deformity and disease


Early childhood

  • Higher-order disgust

  • Physical contamination  social contamination

    • 7-8 year olds “cooties”

  • Physical contamination  moral contamination

  • Examples?


Obesity

Obesity

  • Early signs of obesity as young as 2 years old

  • Obesity rates among 2- to 5-year-olds rose to 14% for the years 2003-2006

    • compared with 5% in 1980

  • Need less food than did as an infant

    • Problem for forcing child to “clean their plate”

    • Esp w/ desert as an incentive!

  • Attraction to salty and sweet foods

    • Too much juice

    • Junk food

    • Not enough veggies and fibers

  • Other contributors

    • Too much (full fat) milk

    • Not enough physical/mental activity


  • Consequences

    Consequences

    • Type II diabetes

      • 50% of some children in low-income areas

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rutaw8OJ9Wo

    • Bone development problems

      • Stunted hip/leg bone growth

    • Cardiovascular disease

    • HBP, High cholesterol

    • Lower IQ

    • Obesity programs for toddlers?

      • http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Story?id=5602922&page=1


    Developing cognitive skills

    developing cognitive skills

    • Memory development

      • Still better memory for content than context

        • No memory of when/where something is learned

    • Increase in “executive function”

    • Impulse control

      • Delayed gratification

      • Perseverance

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6EjJsPylEOY

  • Ability to override current intentions given new information

    • Color/shape card sorting game


  • Sort by color

    sort by color


    Sort by shape

    sort by shape


    Early childhood

    • What is the driving force behind this development?

    • Brain maturation

      • Plasticity

    • Cognitive exploration

      • Piaget

      • Vygotsky


    Brain development

    brain development

    • Brain is 95% of adult weight by 6 years of age.

      • Much of this is due to myelination.

    • Rapid growth and death spurts as brain restructures

      • High degree of plasticity

    • Thickening of corpus callosum

      • Bi-hemospheric communication

      • Better, faster thinking

      • More coordinated actions

    • Frontal lobe development

      • Not completed until late adolescence/early adulthood


    Piaget s theory

    Piaget’s theory

    • Child as Scientists

    • Children learn on their own

    • Children are intrinsically motivated to learn.

    • Language and education play only minimal roles.


    Early childhood

    • Sensorimotor – birth to 2 years

    • Pre-operational – 2 to 7 years


    Vygotsky socio cultural theories

    Vygotsky: socio-cultural theories

    • Children as Apprentices

    • Child learns through social interaction

    • Children are socially motivated to learn

    • Language and education play central roles.


    Early childhood

    • Children as apprentices

      • guided participation


    Scaffolding

    Scaffolding

    • temporary support that is tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process


    Zone of proximal development zpd

    Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

    • The skills that we can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently.

    • ZPD applies to the ideas or cognitive skills we are close to mastering as well as to more apparent skills.

    • Examples?


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