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Ancient Civilizations: Egypt. Geography & Environment. The Geography. On which continent is Egypt located?

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The geography
The Geography

  • On which continent is Egypt located?

  • Africa; in the northeastern region


The geography1
The Geography

  • On which river did the ancient Egyptians settle?

  • Nile River

  • WHY??


The geography2
The Geography

  • The Nile provided a small strip of fertile land in the middle of a desert

  • Annual flood; The Gift of the Nile



Egyptian religion
Egyptian Religion

  • Polytheism:

  • The worship of many gods

  • Worshipped 2000+ gods and goddesses


Egyptian religion1
Egyptian Religion

  • Primary Egyptian Gods:

  • Re – the Sun god

  • Osiris – the god of the Dead

  • Isis – the goddess of women


Egyptian government
Egyptian Government

  • Theocracy:

  • Type of gov’tin which rule is based upon religious authority


Egyptian government1
Egyptian Government

  • Pharaoh, Pharaoh…

  • Egyptians believed that their kings, or pharaohs, WERE gods

  • Pharaohs were VERY POWERFUL!

  • Ruled religion, government & military


What is ka
What is Ka?

  • Egyptians believed that the Pharaohs possessed an eternal life force, also known as ka


What is ka1
What is Ka?

  • Ka allowed pharaohs to rule for all of eternity; therefore, their tombs were even more important than their palaces on earth


Pyramids
Pyramids

  • Pyramids:

  • Tombs for the Pharaohs

  • Built out of limestone, granite & stone



  • The only surviving wonder of the ancient world, Egypt's pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone


Northern entrance
Northern Entrance pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone


The sphinx
The Sphinx pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone


Culture

Culture pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone


Egyptian culture
Egyptian Culture pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • Strong belief in the afterlife

  • Believed that the final judgment occurred at death

  • Does your heartweigh more than a feather?


Weighing of the heart
Weighing of the Heart pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone


Mummification
Mummification pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • Reserved for royals & elites

  • What is mummification?

  • A technique that involved embalming & drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying


Mummification1
Mummification pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • “First, they draw out the brains through the nostrils with an iron hook…Then with a sharp stone they make an incision in the side, and take out all the bowels…Then, having filled the belly with pure myrrh, cassia, and other perfumes, they sew it up again; and when they have done this they steep it in natron (mineral salt), leaving it under for 70 days…At the end of 70 days, they wash the corpse, and wrap the whole body in bandages of waxen cloth.” - Herodotus


Mummification2
Mummification pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • Horrible Histories: Awful Egyptians, “The Mummy Song”


Mummification3
Mummification pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • Coffins were filled with items that could be used in the afterlife such as clothing, food, cosmetics & jewelry


Book of the dead
Book of the Dead pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • Book of hymns, prayers & magic spells that were intended to guide the soul in the afterlife

  • Placed in the coffin


Society

Society pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone


Great to be an egyptian
Great to be an Egyptian? pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • A social hierarchy did exist in Egypt; however, one was not locked into his or her social class

  • Possible to change status via marriage, personal success, etc.


Royal pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

Family

Upper Class:

Priests, Army, Gov’t

Middle Class:

Merchants and Artisans

Lower Class:

Peasant Farmers and Laborers


Knowledge

Knowledge pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone


The importance of writing
The Importance of Writing pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • Earliest form of writing was the pictograph

  • Later developed into hieroglyphics


The importance of writing1
The Importance of Writing pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

  • In hieroglyphics:

  • Images stand for ideas, as well as for sounds

  • The image of an OWL stands for the m sound, as well as for the bird itself


The Rosetta Stone pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone


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