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Ancient Civilizations: Egypt. Geography & Environment. The Geography. On which continent is Egypt located?

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Ancient Civilizations: Egypt

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Ancient civilizations egypt

Ancient Civilizations: Egypt

Geography environment

Geography & Environment

The geography

The Geography

  • On which continent is Egypt located?

  • Africa; in the northeastern region

The geography1

The Geography

  • On which river did the ancient Egyptians settle?

  • Nile River

  • WHY??

The geography2

The Geography

  • The Nile provided a small strip of fertile land in the middle of a desert

  • Annual flood; The Gift of the Nile

Religion government

Religion & Government

Egyptian religion

Egyptian Religion

  • Polytheism:

  • The worship of many gods

  • Worshipped 2000+ gods and goddesses

Egyptian religion1

Egyptian Religion

  • Primary Egyptian Gods:

  • Re – the Sun god

  • Osiris – the god of the Dead

  • Isis – the goddess of women

Egyptian government

Egyptian Government

  • Theocracy:

  • Type of gov’tin which rule is based upon religious authority

Egyptian government1

Egyptian Government

  • Pharaoh, Pharaoh…

  • Egyptians believed that their kings, or pharaohs, WERE gods

  • Pharaohs were VERY POWERFUL!

  • Ruled religion, government & military

What is ka

What is Ka?

  • Egyptians believed that the Pharaohs possessed an eternal life force, also known as ka

What is ka1

What is Ka?

  • Ka allowed pharaohs to rule for all of eternity; therefore, their tombs were even more important than their palaces on earth



  • Pyramids:

  • Tombs for the Pharaohs

  • Built out of limestone, granite & stone

Ancient civilizations egypt

The Great Pyramid at Giza

Ancient civilizations egypt

  • The only surviving wonder of the ancient world, Egypt's pyramid of Cheops takes up 13 acres of land, and overlooks the neighboring pyramids belonging to this pharaoh's son and grandson. Experts speculate it took one hundred thousand laborers roughly 20 years to build the pyramid of Cheops alone

Northern entrance

Northern Entrance

The sphinx

The Sphinx



Egyptian culture

Egyptian Culture

  • Strong belief in the afterlife

  • Believed that the final judgment occurred at death

  • Does your heartweigh more than a feather?

Weighing of the heart

Weighing of the Heart



  • Reserved for royals & elites

  • What is mummification?

  • A technique that involved embalming & drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying



  • “First, they draw out the brains through the nostrils with an iron hook…Then with a sharp stone they make an incision in the side, and take out all the bowels…Then, having filled the belly with pure myrrh, cassia, and other perfumes, they sew it up again; and when they have done this they steep it in natron (mineral salt), leaving it under for 70 days…At the end of 70 days, they wash the corpse, and wrap the whole body in bandages of waxen cloth.” - Herodotus



  • Horrible Histories: Awful Egyptians, “The Mummy Song”



  • Coffins were filled with items that could be used in the afterlife such as clothing, food, cosmetics & jewelry

Book of the dead

Book of the Dead

  • Book of hymns, prayers & magic spells that were intended to guide the soul in the afterlife

  • Placed in the coffin



Great to be an egyptian

Great to be an Egyptian?

  • A social hierarchy did exist in Egypt; however, one was not locked into his or her social class

  • Possible to change status via marriage, personal success, etc.

Ancient civilizations egypt



Upper Class:

Priests, Army, Gov’t

Middle Class:

Merchants and Artisans

Lower Class:

Peasant Farmers and Laborers



The importance of writing

The Importance of Writing

  • Earliest form of writing was the pictograph

  • Later developed into hieroglyphics

The importance of writing1

The Importance of Writing

  • In hieroglyphics:

  • Images stand for ideas, as well as for sounds

  • The image of an OWL stands for the m sound, as well as for the bird itself

Ancient civilizations egypt

The Rosetta Stone

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