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Elements of Organizations. Social entities ? composed of people and groups of peopleGoal-directed ? exist for a purpose ? trying to achieve an end or missionDeliberately structured activity systems ? tasks are subdivided into separate departmentsIdentifiable boundary ? which elements are inside o
Struktur Organisasi dan Perkembangannya

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2. Elements of Organizations Social entities ? composed of people and groups of people Goal-directed ? exist for a purpose ? trying to achieve an end or mission Deliberately structured activity systems ? tasks are subdivided into separate departments Identifiable boundary ? which elements are inside or outside of organization, distinct membership commitment in return for money, prestige or gain

3. Organizational Structure Organizational structure specifies the firm?s formal reporting relationships, procedures, controls, and authority and decision-making processes. It is critical to match organizational structure to the firm?s strategy. Chandler?s comment: ?Structure follows strategy? needs to be balanced with dynamic nature of strategy.

4. The inherent tension in corporate structure Structural stability provides the capacity required to consistently and predictably manage the firm?s daily work routines Structural flexibility provides the opportunity to explore competitive possibilities allocate resources to activities that shape competitive advantages needed by the firm

5. ORGANISASI MEKANIK, ORGANIK DAN BIROKRATIK

6. KARAKTERISTIK BIROKRASI IDEAL DARI WEBER Pembagian tugas secara tegas Hierarki jelas Seleksi berdasarkan kualifikasi teknis Gaji tetap Merupakan pekerjaan utama Promosi berdasar senioritas atau prestasi dan tergantung pada penilaian atasan Pemisahan antara pemilik dan pekerja Aturan umum yang mengikat pegawai

7. BERBAGAI TIPE STRUKTUR (1) STRUKTUR SEDERHANA (2) STRUKTUR FUNGSIONAL (3) STRUKTUR MULTIDIVIDIONAL (4) STRUKTUR MATRIKS (5) STRUKTUR HIBRIDA (6) STRUKTUR JARINGAN (NETWORK)

8. STRUKTUR SEDERHANA Biasanya terjadi pada organisasi yang baru dibentuk (misalnya usaha wiraswasta yang baru dimulai) atau organisasi yang memang sengaja dibuat kecil (mis. tempat praktek dokter). Tingkat diferensiasi dan kompleksitas RENDAH.

9. STRUKTUR FUNGSIONAL Ketika struktur sederhana tidak lagi mencukupi, ketika organisasi berkembang dengan tugas-tugas yang semakin kompleks, maka biasanya dibentuk struktur FUNGSIONAL. Fungsi atau Tugas-tugas yang sama dikelompokkan menjadi satu. Misalnya, perusahaan manufaktur

10. BAGAN STRUKTUR FUNGSIONAL

11. Matching Structure and Strategy Different forms of the functional organizational structure are matched to cost leadership strategy differentiation strategy differences in these forms can be seen in important structural characteristics

12. Structure for _________ Strategy

13. Structure for _________ Strategy

14. Strategy and Structure Growth Pattern:

15. The importance of the m-form Williamson (1985) wrote: ?The most significant organizational innovation of the twentieth century was the development in the 1920s of the multidivisional structure."

16. Multidivisional Structure Each division is operated as a separate business Appropriate for related-diversified businesses Key task of corporate managers is exploiting synergies among divisions

17. The example of General Motors

18. Three Variations of the Multidivisional Structure

19. Strategy and Structure Growth Pattern: Three major benefits corporate officers able to more accurately monitor the performance of each business, which simplifies the problem of control facilitates comparisons between divisions, which improves the resource allocation process stimulates managers of poorly performing divisions to look for ways of improving performance

20. Strategy and Structure Growth Pattern: Strategic control operating divisions each division is separate business or profit center Top corporate officer delegates responsibilities to division managers for day-to-day operations for business-unit strategy Appropriate when the firm grows through diversification

35. Konfigurasi Organisasi (Mintzberg?s Configurations)


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