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AP U.S. History Unit 8. American Imperialism and involvement in World War I. Focus while reading. Clash between the United States government and Native Americans in the western territories and the atrocities that resulted. The creation of the United States’ overseas empire

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AP U.S. History Unit 8

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Ap u s history unit 8

AP U.S. HistoryUnit 8

American Imperialism and involvement in World War I


Focus while reading

Focus while reading

  • Clash between the United States government and Native Americans in the western territories and the atrocities that resulted.

  • The creation of the United States’ overseas empire

  • The theories and justifications of both those that supported imperialism and those that were opposed.

  • Creation of the Open Door Policy in China

  • United States interventionism in Central and South America.

  • German violations of American neutrality and the role played by economic ties and British propaganda in shaping American public opinion about World War I.

  • The effect of World War I on American civil liberties

  • The nature of the Treaty of Versailles and the role it played in causing World War II.

  • The idealism of Woodrow Wilson, the formation of the League of Nations, and opposition faced by Wilson at home.


Introduction to american imperialism

Introduction to American Imperialism

  • Manifest Destiny shaped American expansion prior to the Civil War, but this expansionist sentiment was interrupted by Abolition, Women’s Rights, and Civil War.

  • With the nation once again unified the United States resumed its spirit of expansionism outside of the continental United States.

  • By the end of the Nineteenth Century the United States was a major economic and military power, a status that was enhanced further by participation in World War I, and cemented by the outcome of World War II.

  • Many of the “driving forces” behind Manifest Destiny returned in the push for American Imperialism, but before the U.S. could look outward it had to deal with issues related to Native Americans in the west.


Unit 8 1 u s policy towards the native americans following the civil war

Unit 8.1: U.S. Policy towards the Native Americans following the Civil War.

  • What did the closing of the frontier mean for American society?

  • How did the “Indian Wars” lead to atrocities committed by both the Native Americans and United States military in the process of ending resistance on the Great Plains?

  • What role did the Dawes Severalty Act play in the relationship between the Native American tribes and the U.S. Government?

  • What events resulted in the end of Native American resistance on the Great Plains?


Unit 8 1 u s policy towards the native americans following the civil war1

Unit 8.1: U.S. Policy towards the Native Americans following the Civil War.

  • What did the closing of the frontier mean for American society?

    • In 1890 the U.S. census officially declared that, with few exceptions, the frontier had been settled.

    • Frederick Jackson Turner authored “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” detailing the reaction to this event.

    • According to Turner, the Frontier had been the source of American independence and individualism.

      • It had led to the blossoming of democracy

      • It made Americans inventive and pragmatic

      • The availability of free land had been a “safety valve” for America’s discontent, where would they go now?

      • The death of the frontier coincided with the death of the dominance of rural culture in American society. More people were now moving to the cities, not out to rural areas.

      • Turner believed that the death of the frontier doomed America to the class division and class warfare that plagued Europe.


Unit 8 1 u s policy towards the native americans following the civil war2

Unit 8.1: U.S. Policy towards the Native Americans following the Civil War.

  • How did the “Indian Wars” lead to atrocities committed by both the Native Americans and United States military in the process of ending resistance on the Great Plains?

    • As white settlers closed the frontier the Native American lost his homeland and his ability to live according to his traditions.

    • Two-thirds of the Native population lived on the Great Plains as nomadic hunter-gatherers, giving up farming in colonial times after the Spanish introduced the horse.

    • Andrew Jackson initiated the policy of forced removal of Eastern Native American tribes on the belief that the land west of the Mississippi would be forever “Indian Country”, but the transcontinental railroad, gold rush, and Oregon Trail busted that fantasy.

    • The Treaty of Fort Laramie renewed the Reservation System, establishing “permanent” boundaries for Indian lands, but if the Buffalo weren’t going to cooperate with these boundaries the Natives couldn’t either.

    • Obviously these tensions led to conflict.


Unit 8 1 u s policy towards the native americans following the civil war3

Unit 8.1: U.S. Policy towards the Native Americans following the Civil War.

  • How did the “Indian Wars” lead to atrocities committed by both the Native Americans and United States military in the process of ending resistance on the Great Plains?

    • As miners, cattlemen, and homesteaders flooded onto Native lands war became inevitable.

    • Sporadic clashes turned into bloody wars characterized by horrific atrocity.

      • In 1864 the Colorado Militia massacred Cheyenne women, children, and elderly under a white flag of surrender at Sand Creek.

      • In 1867 the Sioux slaughtered an Army column, dismembering bodies and gauging out eyes (to disable their enemies in the afterlife).

      • Conflicts between gold miners and Natives caused violence in the Black Hills of South Dakota.

      • Possibly the most significant event of the Indian Wars was the defeat (massacre) of General Custer and his men at the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876. The defeat of the “Rock Star General” prompted more troops to be sent to the region and an intense pressure to force tribes to reservation.

      • In 1877 Chief Joseph tried to lead a band of Nez Pierce Indians to Canada, but were hunted down and forced to reservation. Chief Joseph then made his famous statement “I am tired, from where the sun now sets I shall fight no more forever”.

    • Ultimately, the slaughter of the Buffalo doomed the Native American’s way of life and pushed them onto Reservation.


Unit 8 1 u s policy towards the native americans following the civil war4

Unit 8.1: U.S. Policy towards the Native Americans following the Civil War.

  • What role did the Dawes Severalty Act play in the relationship between the Native American tribes and the U.S. Government?

    • The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 sought to remedy the problem of dealing with each individual Native American Tribe as if it were a separate nation.

    • By abolishing the tribal system, supporters of the Dawes Act hoped to create a path to citizenship and civilization for the Native Americans by turning them (Americanizing them) into farmers.

    • Tribal land was divided up into 160 acre plots and Natives who stayed on the land for 25 years and adopted the “habits of civilized life” would be granted citizenship.

    • Although 47 million acres were distributed to Native Americans, 90 million acres of formerly reservation land would be sold by the government, land speculators, or Native Americans themselves to whites.

    • Disease and poverty ultimately reduced the Native American population to 200,000 by 1900, many of whom lived as wards of the Federal Government.


Unit 8 1 u s policy towards the native americans following the civil war5

Unit 8.1: U.S. Policy towards the Native Americans following the Civil War.

  • What events resulted in the end of Native American resistance on the Great Plains?

    • The last effort to resist U.S. domination was the “Ghost Dance” Movement.

    • When Sitting Bull, a famous Sioux Medicine Man and leader at the Battle of Little Big Horn, initiated the movement to drive the whites from Native American ancestral lands the U.S. Government sent the military to arrest him. When a skirmish broke out at his arrest, Sitting Bull was shot and killed.

    • The United States Military had by now come to associated Native American dancing as a prelude to war. The Ghost Dance Movement heightened sensitivities to dancing on reservation and usually prompted searches for illegal firearms.

    • When one such search was conducted at Wounded Knee Creek Reservation in South Dakota a shot was fired and the military massacred 200 Sioux women, children, elderly, and others.

    • The Massacre at Wounded Knee broke Native American resistance on the Great Plains.

    • The 1924 Snyder Act granted Native Americans citizenship, whether they complied with the Dawes Act or not.

    • As part of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal the Indian Reorganization Act (1934) reestablished the Tribal System.

    • Today 1.8 million Native Americans live, on and off reservation land, in the United States as part of 116 different tribes.


Unit 8 2 the new imperialism

Unit 8.2: The New Imperialism

  • How was the philosophy of imperialism being developed around the world and what role did this play in shaping American support for the concept?

  • How did the importance of a powerful military shape the urgency of American Imperialism?

  • What role did religion play in the desire to acquire an “overseas empire”?

  • In what ways did the, previously discussed, theory of Social Darwinism impact the nation’s support for imperialism?


Unit 8 2 the new imperialism1

Unit 8.2: The New Imperialism

  • How was the philosophy of imperialism being developed around the world and what role did this play in shaping American support for the concept?

    • The United States was actually quite late getting into the race to build an empire.

    • Because of this, there was a greater sense of urgency because there was limited territories available that were not already controlled by some foreign rival.

    • Social Scientists have produced numerous theories explaining the impulse for imperialism:

      • John Hobson: Colonies provide an answer to overproduction/underconsumption. The Colony becomes a market for surplus commodities of the home country. A critic of imperialism, Hobson argued you could solve this problem by simply raising workers’ wages.

      • Vladimir Lenin: The leader of the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin saw imperialism as a part of the nature of Capitalism.

      • Rosa Luxemburg: A German Marxist, Luxemburg believed that when the Capitalist nations of the world ran out of new colonies, that Capitalism would collapse.


Unit 8 2 the new imperialism2

Unit 8.2: The New Imperialism

  • How did the importance of a powerful military shape the urgency of American Imperialism?

    • The definitive work that explained the military component of imperialism was written by Alfred T. Mahan (The Influence of Sea Power Upon History).

    • Mahan explained that in order for the United States to become a major world power it had to enlarge and modernize its Navy and acquire Pacific and Caribbean Colonies to serve as refueling stations.

    • Mahan also advocated for the construction of a canal through Panama that would link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and strengthen the United States economically and militarily.

    • Mahan’s work had a profound influence on President Theodore Roosevelt, himself a staunch supporter of a U.S. Global Empire.


Unit 8 2 the new imperialism3

Unit 8.2: The New Imperialism

  • What role did religion play in the desire to acquire an “overseas empire”?

    • The concept that civilized western (Anglo-Saxon) culture had an opportunity, through imperialism, to take Christian civilization out to lesser cultures was embraced by nativist Reverend Josiah Strong.

    • In many cases the “Missionary Rationale” was used to mute criticisms of “Economic Imperialism” and justify such a foreign policy to those that may have opposed the acquisition of new markets and exploitation of raw materials in these lesser developed nations.

    • Strong and others pushed an agenda that it was the obligation of the Anglo-Saxon race to dominate the world and civilized the people of less-developed nations.


Unit 8 2 the new imperialism4

Unit 8.2: The New Imperialism

  • In what ways did the, previously discussed, theory of Social Darwinism impact the nation’s support for imperialism?

    • Advocates of imperialism maintained that the United States was morally and biologically superior to those cultures and people that were being dominated.

    • Imperialism was merely a reflection of that superiority.

    • Rudyard Kipling (author of The Jungle Book) wrote the hymn to United States Imperialism: The White Man’s Burden, in which he expressed that it was the “cross to bear” of nations like the United States and Great Britain to civilize the world.

    • Others simply opposed a U.S. foreign policy based on ethical and theoretical justifications.

      • These people supported what has become known as Realpolitik, or the Politics of Reality.

      • Based on this a nation operates its foreign policy off of the practical and realistic needs and concerns of the nation.

      • Advocates of U.S. imperialism would argue that expanding a global empire was both politically and economically necessary for the growing nation.


Unit 8 3 methods used to achieve imperialist aims

Unit 8.3: Methods used to achieve imperialist aims.

  • What was “Formal Imperialism” and what were some examples of how this was employed by the United States?

  • What was “Informal Imperialism” and what were some examples of how this was employed by the United States?

  • What did many politicians, military leaders, and social scientists believe that the United States stood to gain from a foreign policy based on imperialism?


Unit 8 3 methods used to achieve imperialist aims1

Unit 8.3: Methods used to achieve imperialist aims.

  • What was “Formal Imperialism” and what were some examples of how this was employed by the United States?

    • Formal Imperialism is a pervasive method, used by the United States and other nations, that involves the physical presence of the mother country politically and/or militarily.

    • Examples of formal imperialism involving the United States include:

      • Hawaii

      • Guam

      • Puerto Rico

      • The Philippines


Unit 8 3 methods used to achieve imperialist aims2

Unit 8.3: Methods used to achieve imperialist aims.

  • What was “Informal Imperialism” and what were some examples of how this was employed by the United States?

    • In this sense of imperialism, formal control is not necessary.

    • Instead of a physical presence in a colony, nation, or region the mother country can use several other means to dominate that culture:

      • Imperialists can “prop up” a “puppet” state and give financial/military assistance to governments that support their agenda.

      • The imperialist can draft treaties that subordinate the interests of the dominated nation to the interests of the mother country.

      • It can use economic leverage and trade agreements to inure that the dominated region follows the political agenda of the mother country.

    • John Hay’s “Open Door” Policy, first implemented in China then in other continents, is an excellent example of this form of domination.

      • The Open Door Policy allowed penetration of any area by imperialist nations under the guise of “free trade”.


Unit 8 3 methods used to achieve imperialist aims3

Unit 8.3: Methods used to achieve imperialist aims.

  • What did many politicians, military leaders, and social scientists believe that the United States stood to gain from a foreign policy based on imperialism?

    • An imperialist policy would bring the economy out of immediate economic crisis (The Depression of 1893).

    • An imperialist policy would increase opportunities for investment.

    • An imperialist policy would reduce tension between the working class and the Corporations by:

      • By increasing demand in overseas markets, unemployment would be reduced.

      • Some of the benefits of a policy of imperialism would be passed along to the working class through increased wages

      • Class tensions would be muted by an intensified patriotism

    • Not to mention that the closing of the Frontier meant that there was only one direction left to expand – outward.


Unit 8 4 opponents of imperialism

Unit 8.4: Opponents of Imperialism

  • What role did Imperialism play in the Presidential election of 1900?

  • What groups and noted individuals were vocally opposed to imperialism?

  • What was it about imperialism that offended those that were opposed to U.S. involvement in this renewed expansionist program?


Unit 8 4 opponents of imperialism1

Unit 8.4: Opponents of Imperialism

  • What role did Imperialism play in the Presidential election of 1900?

    • The former President, Grover Cleveland, was staunchly opposed to imperialism. He was against the annexation of Hawaii, for example.

    • Republican President McKinley, who would preside over the annexation of Hawaii and lead the U.S. into the Spanish-American War, was a supporter of imperialism (although he was hesitant to go to war with Spain).

    • Republican Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was also a supporter of a Global U.S. Empire. He was instrumental in destroying the Spanish Fleet and conquering the Philippines as well as leading the famous “Roughriders” in Cuba during the Spanish-American War.

    • Democrat nominee William Jennings Bryan was opposed to imperialism, he saw it as tool to make the corporate class even wealthier.


Unit 8 4 opponents of imperialism2

Unit 8.4: Opponents of Imperialism

  • What groups and noted individuals were vocally opposed to imperialism?

    • The Anti-Imperialist League

      • William Jennings Bryan – politician

      • Mark Twain – writer

      • Andrew Carnegie – Economic Activist/Philanthropist

      • Charles Francis Adams – Scholar

      • William Sumner - Scholar


Unit 8 4 opponents of imperialism3

Unit 8.4: Opponents of Imperialism

  • What was it about imperialism that offended those that were opposed to U.S. involvement in this renewed expansionist program?

    • The Costs necessary to maintain an Empire

    • The immorality of denying others self-determination

    • Opposition to the racist notion that incorporating “lesser” cultures into a U.S. Empire would weaken American purity.


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • What caused the United States to declare war on Spain in 1898?

  • What were the major military “turning points” of the war?

  • What were the terms of the Peace Treaty and what role would the “Monroe Doctrine” play in expanding U.S. influence over Latin America?

  • As a newly established “World Power” the U.S. asserted its expansionist agenda in Asia and the Pacific. How did events in China and Japan lead to an expanded U.S. role in the region?


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america1

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • What caused the United States to declare war on Spain in 1898?

    • Spain’s brutal treatment of Cuban civilians during a rebellion led by poet/journalist Jose Marti.

    • The United States’ support for the Cuban Independence Movement (Cuba Libre).

    • Cuba’s strategic location in the Caribbean made it valuable to the United States in enforcing the Monroe Doctrine.

    • The war between Cuban Rebels and the Spanish Authorities was damaging American business interests in Cuba.

    • Believing a war with Spain would expand newspaper readership, William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer’s newspapers unscrupulously sensationalized Spanish atrocities in Cuba. The American reading public devoured the exaggerated stories of the Yellow Press.


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america2

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • What caused the United States to declare war on Spain in 1898?

    • The DeLome Letter

      • In 1898 an American newspaper published the private letter of DeLome, a Spanish Ambassador to the United States, stolen from his living quarters.

      • In the letter, Deputy DeLome made derogatory remarks about President McKinley (although Theodore Roosevelt had made worse statements about the President publicly).

      • When the letter was published the American public was outraged. DeLome resigned his post, but the damage was done.

    • The Explosion of the U.S.S. Maine

      • In 1898 the Battleship U.S.S. Maine was sent to the Port of Havana to protect American nationals and American property in Cuba.

      • One week after the DeLome incident, a massive explosion destroyed the Maine and killed 250 American Sailors.

      • By the time the Yellow Press was through sensationalizing the explosion there could be no other verdict than the Spanish had committed this atrocious act and murdered those sailors.

      • Although the true cause of the explosion is still a mystery , the American public was eager for war with Spain to avenge the Maine and restore American honor.

      • The Declaration of War came in the form of the Teller Amendment, which also guaranteed the Cuban people independence and self-determination after the Spanish were defeated.


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america3

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • What were the major military “turning points” of the war?

    • At the order of then Assistant Secretary to the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, the U.S. Pacific Fleet sailed to the Philippines and destroyed the Spanish Navy in Manila Bay on June 1, 1898.

    • By August 1, 1898 Manila, Capital of the Philippines, was captured by American forces assisted by Filipino rebels.

    • Unprepared for tropical warfare, outgunned by the modern weapons of the Spanish, and hastily trained and unorganized the U.S. Army and Cuban rebels eventually wore down the Spanish and won victory.

      • One of the most important events of the ground campaign in Cuba was the famous “Charge up San Juan Hill” executed by the Roughriders Cavalry Regiment and the Buffalo Soldiers.

      • The Roughriders were a “snapshot” of Americana. The Cavalry Regiment featured everything from western outlaws to New England Polo players.

      • They were led by General Leonard Wood, but organized by the Second in Command, Theodore Roosevelt who resigned his post as Assistant Secretary to the Navy to go fight in Cuba.

    • The Spanish Caribbean Fleet was destroyed at Santiago Bay on July 3, 1898 convincing the Spanish to open negotiations for peace.


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america4

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • What were the terms of the Peace Treaty and what role would the “Monroe Doctrine” play in expanding U.S. influence over Latin America?

    • The Treaty of Paris of 1898 was signed in December ending the war, its terms were as follows:

      • Cuba was granted its independence

      • Spain relinquished control of Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States

      • The U.S. acquired a key strategic base in Southeast Asia by purchasing the Philippines for $20 Million from Spain. Unfortunately for the U.S. the Filipinos would rebel against U.S. authority as they had against the Spanish. The Philippines would be granted their independence after World War II in 1946.

    • The Platt Amendment gave the United States the right to intervene in Cuban Affairs if it felt that U.S. interests were threatened. It also gave the U.S. lease to a Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay.

    • The Foraker Act gave Puerto Rico substantial autonomy, while exerting heavy political and economic influence over Puerto Rico as a Commonwealth of the United States.

    • One controversy that arose from the situation in Puerto Rico was whether or not people living in U.S. Overseas Territories were afforded protections under the Constitution.

      • In a series of cases known as the Insular Cases, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution does not follow the flag, that people living under the United States Flag in overseas territories are not automatically afforded constitutional rights.


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america5

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • What were the terms of the Peace Treaty and what role would the “Monroe Doctrine” play in expanding U.S. influence over Latin America?

    • Extensions of the Monroe Doctrine play a major role in Central America and the Caribbean:

      • Theodore Roosevelt: The Roosevelt Corollary

        • Roosevelt pledged that the U.S. would act as an “International Police Power” to deal with “chronic wrongdoers” in Latin America.

        • The Roosevelt Corollary was part of what Theodore Roosevelt called his “Big Stick Diplomacy”.

        • Roosevelt would use the U.S. Military to intervene in Latin American Affairs, and in the process created serious Anti-American sentiment in the region.

      • William Howard Taft: Dollar Diplomacy

        • Taft modified the Roosevelt Corollary by “replacing bullets with dollars”.

        • Wilson believed that political and economic instability in Latin America required U.S. intervention.

        • When he authorized American banks to help prop up Latin American governments, he would give them a piece of the pie (for example granting a U.S. Bank control over the national railroad of Nicaragua).

      • Woodrow Wilson: The Moral (Missionary) Diplomacy

        • A major focus of Wilson’s foreign policy was the “righting of past wrongs” in Puerto Rico, the Philippines, in the Panama Canal, and in dealings with Mexico.

        • After involving the U.S. in a Mexican Civil War, Wilson sent the U.S. Army led by John J. Pershing to hunt down a rebel leader named Poncho Villa, whose men were launching raids into Texas and New Mexico and murdering Americans.

        • Wilson withdrew U.S. forces in 1917 as entry into World War I seemed imminent.

    • At the Pan-American Conference in 1923 and 1928 the U.S. agreed to treat all Latin American nations on “equal footing” and repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary.

    • President Franklin Roosevelt, facing the prospect of World War II, would replace Dollar Diplomacy with the Good Neighbor Policy.

      • The Good Neighbor policy was intended to shore up U.S. alliances in Latin America by promising that no nation would interfere in the internal affairs of another.


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america6

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • As a newly established “World Power” the U.S. asserted its expansionist agenda in Asia and the Pacific. How did events in China and Japan lead to an expanded U.S. role in the region?

    • Gaining an economic foothold in China (as well as the rest of Asia) was significant to building a powerful empire and improving your nation’s status.

    • By 1914 it was clear that the United States and Japan were the leading candidates for hegemony in Asia.

      • Japan had defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War in 1895

      • Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905

      • The U.S. had defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War in 1898 and acquired colonies in the Pacific and Southeast Asia.

    • The first decade of the twentieth century witnessed several attempts to mend the steadily worsening relationship between the U.S. and Japan.

      • President Theodore Roosevelt mediated the Treaty of Portsmouth ending the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. (although the Japanese won concessions from Russia, the Japanese Military class blamed Roosevelt for what they considered only modest gains).

      • In the Taft-Katsura Agreement in 1905 the Japanese recognized U.S. control of the Philippines and the U.S. recognized Japanese control of Korea.

      • In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt sent the “Great White Fleet” on a world cruise that the Japanese may have viewed as a threat to their dream of dominating all of Southeast Asia.

      • The Root-Takahira Agreement improved (temporarily) relations between the two growing powers.


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america7

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • As a newly established “World Power” the U.S. asserted its expansionist agenda in Asia and the Pacific. How did events in China and Japan lead to an expanded U.S. role in the region?

    • Meanwhile, the other European Powers were in a massive territorial grab in China.

    • The U.S., in order to prevent the total dissection of China, authored the “Open Door Policy”, which the Japanese supported in the Root-Takahira Agreement.

    • The intent of the Open Door Policy was to promote free trade in China, really just to make sure that the United States was not excluded from the rich China Market.

    • In 1900 a group of Chinese traditionalists, known as the Boxers (actually the Union of Harmonious Fists), rebelled in an effort to drive out the western influences from China.

    • The U.S. organized a coalition to put down the Boxer Rebellion and sent 20,000 soldiers to participate. The U.S. used its position of leadership to organized a settlement that preserved Chinese Independence. The other European powers, however, charged China indemnities for putting down the rebellion in an effort to weaken the government. The U.S. gave back the vast majority of its money to a very appreciative Chinese Government.


Unit 8 5 the spanish american war and its aftermath in latin america8

Unit 8.5: The Spanish-American War and its aftermath in Latin America

  • As a newly established “World Power” the U.S. asserted its expansionist agenda in Asia and the Pacific. How did events in China and Japan lead to an expanded U.S. role in the region?

    • Other U.S. possessions in the Pacific:

      • Hawaii

        • The key commodity that fostered trade between American Merchants and Hawaiians was Sugar.

        • American Sugar Planters began seizing control of Hawaii when they forced the King to sign the “Bayonet Constitution” limiting his own authority and the ability of Hawaiians to serve in their own government.

        • When the King died, his daughter (now Queen) Liliuokalani implemented a “Hawaii for Hawaiians” Campaign, which prompted the American Sugar Planters, led by Sanford Dole, to rebel and depose the Queen.

        • The Rebellion was aided by U.S. Ambassador John Stevens who authorized the U.S. Navy to assist the American rebels.

        • Eventually Hawaii was annexed by the U.S. and became the 50th State to avoid paying a tariff on Sugar.

      • Samoa

        • The U.S. received rights to a Naval Base in Samoa in the decade following the Civil War. (The U.S. Navy nearly went to war with Germany over the islands, but the conflict was peacefully resolved).

      • Alaska

        • Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867 for $7.5 million.

        • The purchase was heavily criticized as was Secretary of State William Seward for authorizing it.

        • It was called “Seward’s Ice Box” and “Seward’s Folly” by opponents of the purchase.

        • These critics were later silenced when gold and oil were discovered in the territory.


Practice question 1

Practice Question #1

  • The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887:

    • Made Puerto Rico a protectorate of the United States

    • Placed limitations on the political rights of the citizens of Guam

    • Punished Spain for its abuses of the Cuban people

    • Was an attempt by the United States government to assimilate Native Americans

    • Denied Native Americans their rights as citizens of the United States


Practice question 2

Practice Question #2

  • This theorist claimed that underconsumption in the center, or mother country, is the primary reason why nations adopt an imperialist policy.

    • Joseph Schumpeter

    • Vladimir Lenin

    • Rosa Luxemburg

    • Sanford Dole

    • John Hobson


Practice question 3

Practice Question #3

  • The Open Door Policy was initially applied to:

    • Korea

    • Japan

    • China

    • Africa

    • Latin America


Practice question 4

Practice Question #4

  • Alfred T. Mahan was influential during the era of New Imperialism because of his:

    • Support for self-determination for conquered peoples

    • Advocacy for a large U.S. Navy in order to extend the nation’s power internationally

    • Opposition to the U.S. adoption of an imperialist policy

    • Candidacy for the U.S. Presidency as an advocate of imperialism

    • Defeat of the Spanish Fleet in Havana Harbor


Practice question 5

Practice Question #5

  • Which of the following was not an opponent of U.S. imperialism?

    • Theodore Roosevelt

    • Mark Twain

    • William Jennings Bryan

    • Charles Francis Adams

    • Andrew Carnegie


Practice question 6

Practice Question #6

  • In the Taft-Katsura Agreement, Japan recognized the United States’ control over the Philippines and the United States recognized Japan’s control of:

    • China

    • Korea

    • Guam

    • Hawaii

    • Cuba


Practice question 7

Practice Question #7

  • Which of the following held that those living in U.S. Territories are not accorded the same constitutional rights as U.S. citizens?

    • Foraker Act

    • Jones Act of 1916

    • Root-Takahira Agreement

    • Insular Cases

    • Platt Amendment


Practice question 8

Practice Question #8

  • The Teller Amendment:

    • Granted independence to the Philippines

    • Convinced the Filipino rebels to lay down their arms in return for financial concessions

    • Recognized Japan’s influence over East Asia

    • Was a U.S. guarantee of self-determination to the Cubans once Spain was defeated

    • Was Congress’s formal declaration of war against Spain


Practice question 9

Practice Question #9

  • Which U.S. President repudiated the imperialist policies of his predecessors?

    • Theodore Roosevelt

    • William McKinley

    • James K. Polk

    • Woodrow Wilson

    • William Howard Taft


Practice question 10

Practice Question #10

  • Which one of the following was not a cause of the Spanish-American War?

    • The Yellow Press

    • The U.S. desire to prevent European nations from controlling the Cuba

    • The U.S. desire to control Cuba for its strategic location in the Caribbean

    • The sinking of the U.S.S. Maine

    • The DeLome Letter


Answer key

Answer Key

  • E

  • A

  • C

  • B

  • A

  • B

  • D

  • D

  • D

  • B


Introduction to world war i

Introduction to World War I

  • At the same time that the U.S. was developing a vast new Empire from the Pacific to the Caribbean, it was busy at home trying to reform government and Big Business, and engaged in attempts to further democratize the population (an era known as the Progressive Movement).

  • Meanwhile, in Europe storm clouds were forming that forecasted impending war.

  • Americans were generally indifferent to the troubles of the “monarchies and dictatorships” of Europe and favored continuation of Washington’s policy of neutrality with concern to these “storm clouds”.

  • The U.S. would ultimately join World War I in 1917 and the outcome would elevate the U.S. to a mighty world power.


Unit 8 6 the 1914 causes for world war i and american neutrality

Unit 8.6: The 1914 Causes for World War I and American Neutrality.

  • What role did the three “Tragic –isms” play in creating a climate conducive to warfare in 1914?

  • How did the secret and entangling Alliances push what could have been an isolated event into a World War?

  • What role did the Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand play in igniting the “Balkan Powder Keg”?

  • What was the initial American response to World War I and what role did this sentiment play in the election of 1916?


Unit 8 6 the 1914 causes for world war i and american neutrality1

Unit 8.6: The 1914 Causes for World War I and American Neutrality.

  • What role did the three “Tragic –isms” play in creating a climate conducive to warfare in 1914?

    • Rise of Nationalism

      • Over the course of time and many wars in Europe, various small nations had been absorbed by larger European Empires (Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, etc.).

      • Around the turn of the 20th Century a strong desire for independence and ethnic unity began to spread across Europe.

      • These peoples sought self-determination and freely elected governments that would represent their interests.

      • Austria-Hungary was the best example of an Empire that consisted of various ethnic and religious groups that began to desire independence.

    • Growth of Imperialism

      • Competition for new markets and various sources of raw materials, especially during the “scramble for Africa” caused increased conflict between Germany, France, and Britain.

    • Increased Militarism

      • A Naval Arms Race between the British and Germans was creating tensions.

      • The French still harbored resentment toward the Germans over the loss of two of her provinces (Alsace and Loraine) in the Franco-Prussian War and were building their forces in the event the opportunity presented itself to take them back.


Unit 8 6 the 1914 causes for world war i and american neutrality2

Unit 8.6: The 1914 Causes for World War I and American Neutrality.

  • How did the secret and entangling Alliances push what could have been an isolated event into a World War?

    • The resentments, rivalries, competition between these European Empires led to the formation of antagonistic alliances.

    • The two most important were the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance.

      • The Triple Entente (Allies) consisted of Great Britain, France, and Russia.

      • The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire)

    • Some agreements were secret, such as the agreement between Serbia and Russia that Russia would back Serbia if ever attacked by Austria-Hungary.

      • Serbia was at that time backing a Terrorist Group called the Black Hand that was attempting to destabilize Bosnia (which once belonged to Serbia)

      • The Black Hand’s assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand would set this war into motion.

    • The U.S. would enter the war with the Allies (Triple Entente) in 1917.


Unit 8 6 the 1914 causes for world war i and american neutrality3

Unit 8.6: The 1914 Causes for World War I and American Neutrality.

  • What role did the Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand play in igniting the “Balkan Powder Keg”?

    • The Archduke was heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary and was promising the people of Bosnia that he was going to bring reform and a greater sense of self-rule in the province.

    • He was on a trip to Bosnia to show good will and improve relations with the turbulent territory when he was assassinated.

    • The Black Hand could not sit back and allow the Archduke to improve conditions in Bosnia and prevent a revolution that would turn the territory back over to Serbia. The intent was not to remain under the thumb of Austria-Hungary into perpetuity.

    • After several bungling attempts, GavriloPrincep finally shot the Archduke and his wife outside a sandwich shop and, in the process started the most destructive war to that time.

    • Austria-Hungary obviously mobilized to attack Serbia who they blamed for the attack, Russia then mobilized to support Serbia, Germany mobilized against Russia and prepared for war with Great Britain and France, and Great Britain and France prepared for war with Germany.


Unit 8 6 the 1914 causes for world war i and american neutrality4

Unit 8.6: The 1914 Causes for World War I and American Neutrality.

  • What was the initial American response to World War I and what role did this sentiment play in the election of 1916?

    • Woodrow Wilson’s biggest fear was that the war in Europe would disrupt international trade.

    • Wilson also hoped that a neutral United States could play a role in mediating an end to the dispute (similar to what Roosevelt had done for the Russians and Japanese in 1904).

    • The United States would soon face violations of its neutrality by both the British and Germans on the Atlantic as each tried desperately to cut off the flow of supplies to their enemy. Although the British were offending American rights, the actions of Germany would soon overshadow the British crimes.

    • Woodrow Wilson would win reelection in 1916 on the slogan “He kept us out of War” although American neutrality had already begun to crumble as of 1915.


Unit 8 7 causes for american involvement and key turning points of american involvement

Unit 8.7: Causes for American Involvement and key “turning points” of American involvement.

  • How did Trade relationships, credit extensions, and British propaganda play a role in deteriorating U.S. neutrality between 1914 and 1917?

  • What specific events led to U.S. intervention in 1917 and what role did the Communist Revolution and withdrawal of Russia from the War have on finally gaining support for U.S. intervention?

  • What challenges faced the American Expeditionary Force (AEF – “The Doughboys”) in Europe?

  • How did the “late through the door” Americans fare on the battlefields of World War I?


Unit 8 7 causes for american involvement and key turning points of american involvement1

Unit 8.7: Causes for American Involvement and key “turning points” of American involvement.

  • How did Trade relationships, credit extensions, and British propaganda play a role in deteriorating U.S. neutrality between 1914 and 1917?

    • Filling British and French military contracts had brought the U.S. out of an economic recession and where U.S. manufacturers would have liked to ship goods to Germany as well, the British blockade prevented that from happening.

    • Trade with Great Britain and France had quadrupled while trade with Germany was almost non-existent.

    • Then Woodrow Wilson authorized J.P. Morgan and other American bankers to extend a $3 billion line of credit to Britain and France (money that would have been surely lost if the Allies were defeated).

    • Adding to these, the British had launched a highly successful campaign to portray the Germans as modern-day Huns destroying innocent civilian populations and creating a path of destruction wherever they went.

    • Still, by early 1917, most Americans, especially in the West and Midwest favored neutrality.


Unit 8 7 causes for american involvement and key turning points of american involvement2

Unit 8.7: Causes for American Involvement and key “turning points” of American involvement.

  • How did Trade relationships, credit extensions, and British propaganda play a role in deteriorating U.S. neutrality between 1914 and 1917?

    • Division and Opposition to the War

      • Many Americans were deeply divided over support or opposition to one particular group of combatants or the other.

        • Irish-Americans and German-Americans supported the Central Powers because of ethnic allegiance or simple hatred for the British.

        • Many others felt a kinship to the French who shared our revolutionary spirit and had assisted us during the American Revolution.

        • “Forgive me not if I forget the faithful sword of Lafayette”

      • Various politicians and activists gave voice to an anti-war sentiment and support for neutrality.

        • Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan resigned his post when Wilson threatened to cut off diplomatic relations with Germany, believing that such rhetoric would lead the U.S. into war.

        • Jeanette Rankin, 1st woman elected to Congress, voted against U.S. intervention.

        • Jane Addams was also quite outspoken in opposition to the war.

      • American Socialists, led by Eugene V. Debs, opposed the war vocally from start to finish (unlike their European counterparts).

        • Many American Socialists were arrested, including Eugene V. Debs, for violation of the Espionage and Sedition Acts and put in jail to silence their protests.


Unit 8 7 causes for american involvement and key turning points of american involvement3

Unit 8.7: Causes for American Involvement and key “turning points” of American involvement.

  • What specific events led to U.S. intervention in 1917 and what role did the Communist Revolution and withdrawal of Russia from the War have on finally gaining support for U.S. intervention?

    • In 1915 Germany declared the waters around Britain a “war zone” and that all shipping within that war zone (civilian, neutral, or combatant) was subject to be attacked by German U-Boats.

    • The inevitable eventually happened when a British Passenger Liner, the Lusitania, was torpedoed by a German U-Boat resulting in thousands of deaths, including 128 Americans. The American public was outraged.

    • In 1916 President Wilson threatened to end diplomatic relations with Germany and the Germans issued the Sussex Pledge promising to warn civilian ships and take care of civilian passengers, which they abided by until 1917.

    • In March 1917 the Russian Czar Nicholas II was overthrown by Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin. The Germans now faced only a single-front war in Western Europe, which meant they no longer felt a need to appease the U.S.

    • The Germans resumed “Unrestricted Submarine Warfare” in early 1917.

    • In February of 1917 the British intercepted and published a telegram from the German Foreign Minister to the government of Mexico (The Zimmerman Telegram). The telegram promised Mexico the return of the Mexican Cession for military assistance if the U.S. should enter World War I.

    • Woodrow Wilson called a special session of Congress in April to draft a declaration of war against Germany to stop Germany’s “War against Mankind” and to “make the world safe for democracy).


Unit 8 7 causes for american involvement and key turning points of american involvement4

Unit 8.7: Causes for American Involvement and key “turning points” of American involvement.

  • What challenges faced the American Expeditionary Force (AEF – “The Doughboys”) in Europe?

    • Building an Army

      • Although many volunteered, the Army had to be built primarily through the draft, established by the Selective Service Act in 1917.

      • African Americans were still forced to fight in segregated units, although an African American Officers Training School was opened.

      • W.E.B. Du Bois hoped that African American efforts in WWI would lead to greater freedom at home, he would be sadly disappointed.

    • Getting supplies to Europe

      • Although German U-Boats would have a disastrous effect, the U.S. Navy initiated a record-setting shipbuilding program and employed a “Convoy System” that severely limited the destruction of supplies and reinforcements.

    • Fighting in the Trenches

      • Initially, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), commanded by John J. Pershing, was used to bolster British and French lines, but by June 1918 the AEF was responsible for its own sector of the Western Front.


Unit 8 7 causes for american involvement and key turning points of american involvement5

Unit 8.7: Causes for American Involvement and key “turning points” of American involvement.

  • How did the “late through the door” Americans fare on the battlefields of World War I?

    • The AEF played a key role in the halting of the last major German offensive of the war.

      • The Americans halted a German advance at Chatteau-Thierry on the Marne River then launched a successful counter-attack at Belleau Wood.

    • The AEF, at St. Mihiel as part of the Allied Meuse-Argonne Offensive, helped drive the Germans back into Germany, which ultimately resulted in the signing of an armistice to end the fighting.

      • The Armistice was signed at 11:00 am on November 11th, 1918

      • “All is Quiet on the Western Front”

    • The AEF had to deal with many of the same atrocities that plagued European soldiers throughout the war.

      • Trench Warfare was brutal consisting of barbed wire, snipers, machine guns, tanks, airplanes, and chemical weapons.

      • Fortunately for the Americans, the late arrival meant that the AEF only had a limited exposure to these types of conditions.

    • U.S. Casualties after just a few months of fighting were horrific, but paled in comparison with the loss of life suffered by the European combatants.

      • 49,000 battlefield deaths

      • 112,432 deaths total, many thousands more injured

    • On top of the suffering of war, a Flu epidemic resulted in millions of deaths, military and civilian, during the war.


Unit 8 8 the war at home

Unit 8.8: The War at Home

  • In what ways were civil liberties encroached upon during World War I?

  • What did the Supreme Court have to say about violations of civil liberties during wartime?

  • How did the United States mobilize for World War I?


Unit 8 8 the war at home1

Unit 8.8: The War at Home

  • In what ways were civil liberties encroached upon during World War I?

    • Despite the near unanimous support for U.S. intervention into World War I in 1917 in Congress, there was still a moderate anti-war movement during the “war years” that prompted Congress to taken action to deal with threats to the war effort.

      • The Espionage Act of 1917

        • Created fines and jail terms for people “aiding the enemy” or “obstructing the war effort”

        • This could include calls for people to refuse to report for service

        • The Postmaster-General was authorized to ban delivery of treasonous literature

      • The Sedition Act of 1918

        • It was now illegal to discourage the purchase of war bonds.

        • Also, disparaging the military, constitution, or government in general was illegal.

      • The Committee of Public Information

        • Headed by Progressive George Creel it was designed to inspire support for the war effort.

        • However, by targeting people with “foreign-sounding” names and use of propaganda it created a great deal of distrust amongst the public.


Unit 8 8 the war at home2

Unit 8.8: The War at Home

  • What did the Supreme Court have to say about violations of civil liberties during wartime?

    • Schenk v. United States

      • Schenk used the U.S. Mail to disseminate material that urged young men from complying with the draft and reporting for military service.

      • Supreme Court Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes argued that these actions represented a clear and present danger to the interests of the United States.

      • The Court ruled that civil liberties could be limited in time of war.

      • The Schenk case would be used to justify the arrest and conviction of Eugene V. Debs.


Unit 8 8 the war at home3

Unit 8.8: The War at Home

  • How did the United States mobilize for World War I?

    • The Selective Service Act of 1917 created a draft to build up the military.

    • The Federal Government’s intervention into the economy increased dramatically as a result of World War I.

      • The War Industries Board, headed by Bernard Baruch, was created to control all aspects of industrial production and distribution

      • The Fuel Administration, headed by Harry Garfield, shut down non-essential factories and implemented daylight savings for the first time.

      • The National War Labor Board, headed by William Howard Taft, worked to settle disputes between labor and management and prevent labor strikes.

    • The Food Administration encouraged Americans to start “Victory Gardens” and ration important resources (meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wednesdays, etc.).

      • Headed by future President Herbert Hoover

      • Using the Lever Act, the Food Administration mobilized agriculture and established prices that would encourage increased production.

      • Tripled food supplies sent to the front lines in Europe

    • The Committee of Public Information

      • Headed by Progressive George Creel it was designed to inspire support for the war effort.

      • However, by targeting people with “foreign-sounding” names and use of propaganda it created a great deal of distrust amongst the public.


Unit 8 9 the treaty of versailles and the formation of the league of nations

Unit 8.9: The Treaty of Versailles and the formation of the League of Nations.

  • What was the major difference between Woodrow Wilson’s idealistic dream of “peace with honor” and the views of the European powers at the Peace Conference in France?

  • What were the key parts of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points?

  • What were the components of the Treaty of Versailles?

  • What factors led to U.S. opposition to Wilson’s League of Nations and how did that effect the long-term success of the organization?


Unit 8 9 the treaty of versailles and the formation of the league of nations1

Unit 8.9: The Treaty of Versailles and the formation of the League of Nations.

  • What was the major difference between Woodrow Wilson’s idealistic dream of “peace with honor” and the views of the European powers at the Peace Conference in France?

    • The leaders that met in Versailles, France in 1919 to create a settlement to end the war became known as the “Big Four” and did not include representatives from Russia or Germany.

      • France – Clemenceau

      • Britain – Lloyd George

      • Italy – Orlando

      • U.S. – Woodrow Wilson

    • The leaders of Britain and France were influenced deeply by their nation’s losses (nearly 10 million young men and enormous property damage).

    • The leader of Italy was eager to gain territory from the settlement.

    • Woodrow Wilson sought a “Peace with Honor” that would address many of the root causes for the war and hopefully prevent future catastrophic wars.


Unit 8 9 the treaty of versailles and the formation of the league of nations2

Unit 8.9: The Treaty of Versailles and the formation of the League of Nations.

  • What were the key parts of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points?

    • The elimination of secret treaties, the stimulus for which was the Bolshevik Revelation that Britain and France had engaged in this diplomatic practice before the war.

    • Open access to the seas in times of war and peace, which was important for economic expansion and trade

    • Reduction of military stockpiles

    • Adjustment of Colonial Claims

    • Self-determination for Europeans, but not for those under colonial control.

    • The creation of an international assembly that would “afford mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity” (The League of Nations; precursor to the United Nations of today).

      • Wilson believed that the League of Nations would provide a forum to deal with the issues created by the first 13 points, resolve international disputes, and make military confrontation obsolete.


Unit 8 9 the treaty of versailles and the formation of the league of nations3

Unit 8.9: The Treaty of Versailles and the formation of the League of Nations.

  • What were the components of the Treaty of Versailles?

    • The provinces of Alsace and Loraine were returned to France

    • The Rhineland was demilitarized (Germany was banned from fortifying the western bank of the Rhine River)

    • The German military was dramatically reduced in size and strength.

    • Germany was forced to ship coal from the occupied Saar Region to France for fifteen years.

    • Germany lost all of its colonies.

    • Austria-Hungary lost three-fifths of its land and three-fifths of its population.

    • New Nations were created: Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Yugoslavia, and Poland.

    • The Central Powers were forced to pay crushing war reparations

    • Germany was branded with “War Guilt” as the primary proprietor of the war.


Unit 8 9 the treaty of versailles and the formation of the league of nations4

Unit 8.9: The Treaty of Versailles and the formation of the League of Nations.

  • What factors led to U.S. opposition to Wilson’s League of Nations and how did that effect the long-term success of the organization?

    • All of the delegates that Wilson sent to Versailles were Democrats.

      • This angered potential Republican supporters, namely Henry Cabot Lodge (the most influential leader in the Senate).

    • Wilson, himself, traveled to France to work on the Treaty rather than stay at home and galvanize support in the United States.

      • This allowed the opponents of the Treaty and the League of Nations to undercut him in the media and destroy support for the Treaty or the League before Wilson could get home to make his case.

    • Wilson came home in 1918 and launched a massive speaking tour that took the case for ratification directly to the American people.

      • The rigor of this tour took a massive toll on Wilson’s health resulting in a stroke that paralyzed both his body and the potential ratification of the Treaty.

      • Wilson’s wife and his Secretary of State essentially ran the White House until he was replaced in 1920.

    • Ultimately the Reservationists and Irreconcilables won the day. The U.S. would not ratify the Treaty of Versailles, nor would she join the League of Nations.

      • The Reservationists, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, would have supported ratification if certain reservations were put in place to limit U.S. involvement in the League of Nations.

      • The Irreconcilables were ultra-conservative Republicans that would never support the Treaty or American participation in any body that could usurp American authority over its own foreign policy.


Unit 8 10 american isolationism in the interwar years

Unit 8.10: American Isolationism in the “interwar” years.

  • What role did international agreements play in creating a climate conducive to Isolationism?

  • What challenges did the United States face in collecting its debts from Great Britain and France? What made repayment of these debts so difficult?

  • How did the United States’ relationship with Central and South American, as well as with the far-reaches of its overseas empire, begin to change in the interwar years?


Unit 8 10 american isolationism in the interwar years1

Unit 8.10: American Isolationism in the “interwar” years.

  • What role did international agreements play in creating a climate conducive to Isolationism?

    • The main emphasis of these agreements was to implement arms reduction and pledge nations to banning “wars of aggression”.

    • The Washington Naval Conference (1921-22)

      • The initial proposal of Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes was a Naval Holiday, which would ban construction of new warships for a period of ten years and hopefully end the prospects of a naval arms race.

      • The Five-Power Naval Treaty

        • The major world powers agreed to limits on tonnage of Capital Ships that could be produced.

        • They agreed to ban the use of poison gas and placed limits on the use of submarines.

      • The Four-Power Treaty

        • The U.S., Britain, France, and Japan agreed to limit their Pacific possessions by, in part, not constructing forward military bases in the Pacific.

      • The Nine-Power Treaty

        • Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China

    • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

      • This agreement outlawed wars of aggression.

      • However, it did not include any kind of enforcement clause.


Unit 8 10 american isolationism in the interwar years2

Unit 8.10: American Isolationism in the “interwar” years.

  • What challenges did the United States face in collecting its debts from Great Britain and France? What made repayment of these debts so difficult?

    • President Coolidge, very pro-business, demanded that the billions of dollars in loans extended to Britain and France be repaid.

    • Britain and France said they could not repay the loans because they were having difficulty collecting reparations from Germany.

      • The Dawes Plan

        • Significantly reduced Germany’s required reparations

        • Provided loans to Germany so she could pay off Britain and France.

        • The Allies then used the money from Germany to pay off the interest on their loans owed to the United States.

      • The Young Plan

        • Further reduced Germany’s reparations and set up the Bank for International Settlements to assist in repayment of reparations.

    • Nevertheless, the Great Depression caused most nations that owed money to the United States to default on their debts, which means the U.S. simply lost that money.


Unit 8 10 american isolationism in the interwar years3

Unit 8.10: American Isolationism in the “interwar” years.

  • How did the United States’ relationship with Central and South American, as well as with the far-reaches of its overseas empire, begin to change in the interwar years?

    • The Pro-business approach of Calvin Coolidge led to resumed U.S. military intervention in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.

    • As we progressed through the 1920s and into the 1930s, however a movement to improve relations with Latin America ensued.

      • At the Pan-American Conferences of 1923 and 1928 the U.S. established that Latin American nations would be treated on “equal footing” with the United States.

      • In 1928 the Clark Memorandum repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary.

      • As part of the New Deal President Roosevelt established the Good Neighbor Policy that stated that no nation would interfere in the internal affairs of another.

      • These measures dramatically improved U.S.-Latin American relations.

    • The Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1946 finally granted the Philippines their independence


Practice question 11

Practice Question #11

  • Which of the following was not a cause of World War I?

    • Imperialism

    • Militarism

    • Secret Military Alliances

    • The Bolshevik Revolution

    • Nationalism


Practice question 12

Practice Question #12

  • Which of the following was a member of the Central Powers?

    • Germany

    • France

    • Britain

    • Russia

    • The United States


Practice question 13

Practice Question #13

  • The spark that ignited World War I was:

    • The Zimmerman Note

    • The assassination of the Austrian heir to the throne by a Serb nationalist

    • Germany’s ultimatum to Serbia

    • The sinking of the Lusitania

    • The sinking of the Sussex


Practice question 14

Practice Question #14

  • In the Zimmerman Note:

    • Germany offered to compensate the United States for the American lives lost in the Lusitania sinking

    • The United States agreed not to intervene in the war if Germany halted its sinking of neutral shipping

    • The Germans agreed to help the Russian Bolsheviks overthrow the tsar of Russia

    • The United States secretly agreed to supply the Allies with war supplies in return for concessions following the war

    • The Germans promised to restore to Mexico the land it lost after the Mexican-American War in return for a military alliance with Germany


Practice question 15

Practice Question #15

  • In the Sussex Pledge:

    • Germany promised to cease sinking passenger ships without warning or care for the lives of passengers

    • Germany promised to resume U-Boat attacks on neutral shipping if the United States continued to supply the Allies

    • President Wilson promised the Allies that the United States would halt all U.S. trade with Germany

    • The Germans promised to stop using U-Boats to attack Allied warships and merchant ships

    • The United States agreed not to arm its merchant fleet


Practice question 16

Practice Question #16

  • In the U.S. Supreme Court case Schenck v. United States, the Court ruled that:

    • The government could prohibit U.S. citizens from traveling on ships of nations at war

    • Conscientious Objectors could not e forced to serve in the U.S. military.

    • The government was not obligated to protect the lives or property of those American citizens who opposed the war

    • The Espionage Act of 1917 was constitutional and speech that represented a clear and present danger to the United States would not be protected by the first amendment

    • The American Socialist Party represented a clear and present danger to the United States.


Practice question 17

Practice Question #17

  • Which of the following was not a feature of the Treaty of Versailles?

    • Germany would be occupied by France and Britain for twenty years

    • Germany would provide France with coal for fifteen years

    • Germany would pay reparations to the Allies

    • Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France

    • Germany would be demilitarized


Practice question 18

Practice Question #18

  • Which of the following was an international agreement designed to outlaw war?

    • The Five-Power Naval Treaty

    • The Treaty of Versailles

    • The Kellogg-Briand Pact

    • The Four-Power Treaty

    • The Nine-Power Treaty


Practice question 19

Practice Question #19

  • The same year (1917) that the United States entered World War I on the Allied side, this Allied power withdrew from the conflict:

    • Britain

    • France

    • Italy

    • Belgium

    • Russia


Practice question 20

Practice Question #20

  • The Dawes Plan and Young Plan:

    • Increased U.S. financial aid to South America

    • Repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

    • Assisted Germany with its reparations payments and the Allies with the repayment of debts owed to the United States

    • Provided for Filipino independence

    • Placed significant limitations on the role the United States would play in the League of Nations.


Answer key1

Answer Key

  • D

  • A

  • B

  • E

  • A

  • D

  • A

  • C

  • E

  • C


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