Food waste diversion at correctional facilities composting technologies and costs
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Food Waste Diversion at Correctional Facilities Composting Technologies and Costs. Craig Coker Organics Recycling Coordinator DENR/ Div. Of Pollution Prevention & Environmental Assistance. Overview . Technology in Composting Materials Handling Biological Process Optimization

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Food Waste Diversion at Correctional FacilitiesComposting Technologies and Costs

Craig Coker

Organics Recycling Coordinator

DENR/ Div. Of Pollution Prevention & Environmental Assistance


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Overview

  • Technology in Composting

    • Materials Handling

    • Biological Process Optimization

    • Odor Control

  • Capital Cost

    • Increases with technology

  • Operational Costs

    • Decrease with technology

  • Footprint (Area Required)

    • Decreases with technology (usually)


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Technology Classification

  • Low - Tech

    • Windrow

  • Mid - Tech

    • Aerated Static Pile

    • Aerated Compost Bins

  • High - Tech (In-Vessel)

    • Rotary Drum Composters

    • Box/Tunnel Composting Systems

    • Mechanical Compost Bins


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Windrow Composting

  • Long, narrow piles agitated/turned regularly

  • Aeration by natural/passive air movement

  • Better suited to larger volumes

  • Composting Time: 3 - 6 Months


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Windrow Composting, cont.

  • Equipment Needed

    • Grinder/Shredder

    • Tractor/FEL

    • Windrow Turner

      • tractor-pulled

      • self-propelled

    • Screener

  • Manual labor costs excessive without equipment


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Windrow Composting, cont.

  • Footprint

    • One Acre Can Handle 4,000 - 7,000 CY Compost Mix

  • Costs

    • Site Prep -Site Specific

    • Asphalt/Concrete Pad ($12 - $27/square yard)

    • Equipment

      • Grinder/Shredder : $3,500

      • Tractor/Front End Loader : $50K - $150K

      • Windrow Turner : $30K - $200K

      • Screeners : $50K - $180K



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Aerated Compost Bins

  • Aeration Through Porous Floor Plates

  • Composting Time: 2 - 3 Weeks

  • Curing Time: 2 Months

  • Durable Materials of Construction

  • Equipment Needed: Front End Loader

  • Vector/Vermin Control Needed With Food Wastes

  • Capacities: 3 - 4 Days Food Waste + Bulking Agent Per Bin


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Aerated Compost Bins At Caledonia

  • 12 Bins - Two Rows of 6 Bins

  • Construction Cost - $40,000

  • Footprint - 50 SF per Bin

  • Capacity of Each Bin - 36 Barrels (35 - gal.) of Food Scraps

  • Blowers - 980 CFM

  • Aeration Plates - 2’ x 2’, $89 Each

  • Filling/Emptying - With Bobcat


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Aerated Static Pile

  • Aeration Provided By Mechanical Blowers

  • Can Shorten Composting time to 3 - 5 Weeks (followed by 30 days curing)


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Aerated Static Pile

  • Better Suited to Larger Volumes (landscape debris and food waste)

  • May Not Be Suited to Wastes That Need Mixing During Composting, Like Food Wastes

  • Difficult to Adjust Moisture Content During Composting If Needed

  • Odor Control Difficult With Positive Aeration

  • Less Land Area Than Windrows, Still Labor Intensive


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In-Vessel SystemsRotary Drum Composters


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Rotary Drum Composters

  • Rotation Mixes, Aerates Compost Mix

  • Second - Stage Curing/Composting Needed

  • Food Waste Grinding and Mixing With Bulking Agent Needed Prior to Feeding Drum

  • Recipe For Drum Composting Food Wastes:

    • 2 Parts Wood Chips

    • 1 Part Sawdust

    • 2 Parts Food Waste


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Rotary Drum Composting at Brown Creek

  • Type 616 Greendrum Composter with Patz 9427 Chopper

  • Mounted on Tandem Axle Frame - moveable

  • Footprint - 200-300 SF

  • Daily Loading Rate - 2,000 - 5,000 Lbs/Day

  • Operating Capacity - 11 CY

  • Retention Time - 1 Week, Curing Time - 2 Months

  • Cost - Approx. $45,000




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Auburn Correctional Facility, NY

  • Wright Environmental Model 1500 (Model 750 shown)


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Auburn Correctional Composting

  • Capacity: 1500 lbs/day

  • Composting Time: 4 Weeks

  • Curing Time: 1 Month

  • Labor - 2 Inmates

  • Cost: $123,000

  • Disposal Savings: $33,000 / yr. (4-yr. Payback)

  • Footprint: 50’ Long x 10’ Wide


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Mechanical Compost Bins

  • Green Mountain Technologies “Earth Tub”

  • Modular Design, Batch Operation

  • Capacity: 200 lbs/day

  • Composting Time: 4 Weeks; Curing: 1 Month

  • Footprint: 1 Parking Space

  • Cost: $6,000

  • Labor: 1 Operator


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GMT “Earth Tub” Installations

  • UNC - Asheville (Spring, 1999)

  • Univ. of Georgia

  • Hyatt Regency, Chicago

  • Vermont DEC

  • Univ. of South Carolina

  • Connecticut DEP

  • Flushing Hospital, NY

  • Texas A&M University


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For More Information:

  • Greendrum Rotary Drum Composter

    • Bob Broom, RKB Enterprises (888) 475-2368

  • Wright Environmental Tunnel System

    • Paul Roth, Innovative Environmental Systems

      (757)890-1354

  • Green Mountain Technologies Earth Tub

    • John DeRham, (802) 368-7291


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Summary

  • Factors To Consider In Selecting Technology

    • Available Space

    • Available Labor (Inmate or Staff)

    • Vendor Previous Experience With Same Feedstocks

    • Control of Odors, Vermin, and Vectors

    • Life - Cycle Costs

      • Capital Costs And All O&M Costs Over Expected Life Of System

      • Low - Tech: Lower Capital; Higher Operating Costs

      • High - Tech: Higher Capital; Lower Operating Costs


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