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Food Waste Diversion at Correctional Facilities Composting Technologies and Costs. Craig Coker Organics Recycling Coordinator DENR/ Div. Of Pollution Prevention & Environmental Assistance. Overview . Technology in Composting Materials Handling Biological Process Optimization

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food waste diversion at correctional facilities composting technologies and costs

Food Waste Diversion at Correctional FacilitiesComposting Technologies and Costs

Craig Coker

Organics Recycling Coordinator

DENR/ Div. Of Pollution Prevention & Environmental Assistance

overview
Overview
  • Technology in Composting
    • Materials Handling
    • Biological Process Optimization
    • Odor Control
  • Capital Cost
    • Increases with technology
  • Operational Costs
    • Decrease with technology
  • Footprint (Area Required)
    • Decreases with technology (usually)
technology classification
Technology Classification
  • Low - Tech
    • Windrow
  • Mid - Tech
    • Aerated Static Pile
    • Aerated Compost Bins
  • High - Tech (In-Vessel)
    • Rotary Drum Composters
    • Box/Tunnel Composting Systems
    • Mechanical Compost Bins
windrow composting
Windrow Composting
  • Long, narrow piles agitated/turned regularly
  • Aeration by natural/passive air movement
  • Better suited to larger volumes
  • Composting Time: 3 - 6 Months
windrow composting cont
Windrow Composting, cont.
  • Equipment Needed
    • Grinder/Shredder
    • Tractor/FEL
    • Windrow Turner
      • tractor-pulled
      • self-propelled
    • Screener
  • Manual labor costs excessive without equipment
windrow composting cont6
Windrow Composting, cont.
  • Footprint
    • One Acre Can Handle 4,000 - 7,000 CY Compost Mix
  • Costs
    • Site Prep -Site Specific
    • Asphalt/Concrete Pad ($12 - $27/square yard)
    • Equipment
      • Grinder/Shredder : $3,500
      • Tractor/Front End Loader : $50K - $150K
      • Windrow Turner : $30K - $200K
      • Screeners : $50K - $180K
aerated compost bins8
Aerated Compost Bins
  • Aeration Through Porous Floor Plates
  • Composting Time: 2 - 3 Weeks
  • Curing Time: 2 Months
  • Durable Materials of Construction
  • Equipment Needed: Front End Loader
  • Vector/Vermin Control Needed With Food Wastes
  • Capacities: 3 - 4 Days Food Waste + Bulking Agent Per Bin
aerated compost bins at caledonia
Aerated Compost Bins At Caledonia
  • 12 Bins - Two Rows of 6 Bins
  • Construction Cost - $40,000
  • Footprint - 50 SF per Bin
  • Capacity of Each Bin - 36 Barrels (35 - gal.) of Food Scraps
  • Blowers - 980 CFM
  • Aeration Plates - 2’ x 2’, $89 Each
  • Filling/Emptying - With Bobcat
aerated static pile
Aerated Static Pile
  • Aeration Provided By Mechanical Blowers
  • Can Shorten Composting time to 3 - 5 Weeks (followed by 30 days curing)
aerated static pile11
Aerated Static Pile
  • Better Suited to Larger Volumes (landscape debris and food waste)
  • May Not Be Suited to Wastes That Need Mixing During Composting, Like Food Wastes
  • Difficult to Adjust Moisture Content During Composting If Needed
  • Odor Control Difficult With Positive Aeration
  • Less Land Area Than Windrows, Still Labor Intensive
rotary drum composters
Rotary Drum Composters
  • Rotation Mixes, Aerates Compost Mix
  • Second - Stage Curing/Composting Needed
  • Food Waste Grinding and Mixing With Bulking Agent Needed Prior to Feeding Drum
  • Recipe For Drum Composting Food Wastes:
    • 2 Parts Wood Chips
    • 1 Part Sawdust
    • 2 Parts Food Waste
rotary drum composting at brown creek
Rotary Drum Composting at Brown Creek
  • Type 616 Greendrum Composter with Patz 9427 Chopper
  • Mounted on Tandem Axle Frame - moveable
  • Footprint - 200-300 SF
  • Daily Loading Rate - 2,000 - 5,000 Lbs/Day
  • Operating Capacity - 11 CY
  • Retention Time - 1 Week, Curing Time - 2 Months
  • Cost - Approx. $45,000
auburn correctional facility ny
Auburn Correctional Facility, NY
  • Wright Environmental Model 1500 (Model 750 shown)
auburn correctional composting
Auburn Correctional Composting
  • Capacity: 1500 lbs/day
  • Composting Time: 4 Weeks
  • Curing Time: 1 Month
  • Labor - 2 Inmates
  • Cost: $123,000
  • Disposal Savings: $33,000 / yr. (4-yr. Payback)
  • Footprint: 50’ Long x 10’ Wide
mechanical compost bins
Mechanical Compost Bins
  • Green Mountain Technologies “Earth Tub”
  • Modular Design, Batch Operation
  • Capacity: 200 lbs/day
  • Composting Time: 4 Weeks; Curing: 1 Month
  • Footprint: 1 Parking Space
  • Cost: $6,000
  • Labor: 1 Operator
gmt earth tub installations
GMT “Earth Tub” Installations
  • UNC - Asheville (Spring, 1999)
  • Univ. of Georgia
  • Hyatt Regency, Chicago
  • Vermont DEC
  • Univ. of South Carolina
  • Connecticut DEP
  • Flushing Hospital, NY
  • Texas A&M University
for more information
For More Information:
  • Greendrum Rotary Drum Composter
    • Bob Broom, RKB Enterprises (888) 475-2368
  • Wright Environmental Tunnel System
    • Paul Roth, Innovative Environmental Systems

(757)890-1354

  • Green Mountain Technologies Earth Tub
    • John DeRham, (802) 368-7291
summary
Summary
  • Factors To Consider In Selecting Technology
    • Available Space
    • Available Labor (Inmate or Staff)
    • Vendor Previous Experience With Same Feedstocks
    • Control of Odors, Vermin, and Vectors
    • Life - Cycle Costs
      • Capital Costs And All O&M Costs Over Expected Life Of System
      • Low - Tech: Lower Capital; Higher Operating Costs
      • High - Tech: Higher Capital; Lower Operating Costs
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