Epigenetic Inheritance
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Epigenetic Inheritance. Heritable modifications to gene expression that don’t involve changes to DNA sequence. DNA methylation: C’s of CpG doublets Changes in chromatin structure: - Covalent modifications of histones: Acetylation or Methylation of Lysines

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Epigenetic Inheritance

Heritable modifications to gene expression that don’t involve changes to DNA sequence

  • DNA methylation:

    C’s of CpG doublets

  • Changes in chromatin structure:

    - Covalent modifications of histones:

    Acetylation or Methylation of Lysines

    - Changes in levels of chromatin compaction

    Alters ability of TFs to:

    Bind to DNA

    Activate txn


Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes

2 Sex chromosomes (X & Y)

22 Autosomes

Dosage Compensation: Female & male cells must express X-linked genes at same levels.


X-inactivation in female mammals

At random, Xist gene from one X is transcribed at higher levels & Xist RNA coats X chromosome in cis.

Heterochromatin:

highly condensed chromatin


Calico Cats

Females, heterozygous for alleles of an X-linked coat color gene


Parental Imprinting

Expression of alleles of some autosomal genes (rare) is determined by which parent they’re inherited from.

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)

PWS gene is methylated during oogenesis

PWS gene is not methylated during spermatogenesis


Txn of genes is regulated by binding of TFs to enhancers/silencers.

Chromatin structure can modulate ability of activators to bind to DNA &/or activate txn.


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