Human learning memory
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Human Learning & Memory. Siena Heights University Chapters 3, 4 & 5 Dr. S.Talbot. Basic Asssumptions Equipotentiality . Learning should be studied objectively (S-R). Internal processes are excluded from study (SOR). Learning involves a ________ change.

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Human learning memory

Human Learning & Memory

Siena Heights University

Chapters 3, 4 & 5

Dr. S.Talbot


Chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning

  • Basic Asssumptions

    • Equipotentiality.

    • Learning should be studied objectively (S-R).

    • Internal processes are excluded from study (SOR).

    • Learning involves a ________ change.

    • Organisms are ______ slates (tabula rasa).

    • Learning/ conditioning is the result of _____________ events.

    • The most useful theories are _______.

Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning


Chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning1

  • Classical Conditioning (a.k.a. signal learning) & Pavlov

  • Russian physiologist who initially was studying digestion

  • Used dogs to study salivation when dogs were presented with meat powder

  • Also known as Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning

  • Reflex: Automatic, nonlearned innate

    response e.g., an eyeblink

Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning


Human learning memory

The classical conditioning procedure.


Principles of classical conditioning

  • Expectancy: Expectation about how events are interconnected

  • Acquisition: Training period when a response is reinforced

  • Extinction: ________ of a conditioned response through removal of _____________

  • Spontaneous Recovery: ____________ of a learned response following apparent extinction

Principles of Classical Conditioning


Human learning memory

  • Principles of Classical Conditioning

  • Expectancy: Expectation about how events are interconnected

  • Acquisition: Training period when a response is reinforced

  • Spontaneous Recovery: Reappearance of a learned response following apparent extinction

  • Stimulus Generalization: A tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus (e.g., responding to a buzzer or a hammer banging when the conditioning stimulus was a bell)

  • Stimulus Discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to various stimuli (e.g., Paula will respond differently to various bells (alarms, school, timer))

  • Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning

of


Chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning2

  • Higher – order conditioning

    • Includes combining an NS to an already established CS.

  • Sensory Preconditioning & test anxiety

Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning


Chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning3

  • Extinction: Weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement

  • Problems with the use of extinction.

    • The speed of extinction is ___________.

    • Due to second – order conditioning, there may be many associated variables.

      • Difficult to extinguish all of the tem.

    • Spontaneous recovery.

    • Due to avoidance of feared stimuli, people may not get a chance to unlearn the conditioned response.

  • Alternatives

    • Counterconditioning of more _________ responses.

Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning


Chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning4

  • Educational Assumptions

    • How do you get to Carnegie Hall? Practice, practice, practice or exposure, exposure, exposure.

    • The academic setting should be a positive and pleasant environment.

    • To break a bad habit, replace one S - R with an more desirable S – R.

      • Exhaustion method.

      • Threshold method.

      • Incompatibility method.

    • Assessment of learning involves the observation of behaviors.

Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning1

  • B.F. Skinner (1938)

    • A response that is followed by a reinforcer is strengthened and therefore more likely to occur again.

    • Reinforcer – a stimulus or event that increases the frequency or likelihood of a response it follows.

  • Instrumental/ Operant Conditioning

    • Reinforcer follows the response (immediately).

    • Reinforcer is contingent on the response.

  • How is this different than Classical Conditioning?

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning2

  • Primary Reinforcer: Nonlearned and natural; satisfies biological needs (e.g., food, water, affection)

  • Secondary Reinforcer: Learned reinforcer (e.g., money, grades, approval)

  • Positive Reinforcement: When a response is followed by a reward or other positive event

  • Negative Reinforcement: When a response is followed by the _______ of an unpleasant event (e.g., the bells in Fannie’s car stop when she puts the seatbelt on) or by an ____ to discomfort (escape behaviors).

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning3

  • Intrinsic Reinforcer

  • Extrinsic Reinforcer

    • Positive Feedback

    • Social Reinforcer?

  • Problems with each?

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning4

  • Punishments: Any consequence that reduces the frequency of a target behavior

    • Positive Punishment/ Punishment I

    • Negative Punishment/ Punishment II

    • Restitution

    • Restitution Overcorrection

    • Positive – practice overcorrection

    • Time – out

    • In-house suspension

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning5

  • Punishments/ Discipline:

    • Any punishment should

      • Be _______ to the behavior

      • Be ________ in strength to modify behavior

      • Indicate the desired behavior

      • Be immediate & consistent

      • Convey ______

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning6

  • Punishments which may be innappropriate.

    • Physical and psychological punishment

    • Social isolation (i.e. missing recess, going to the corner of the room, suspensions etc…)

    • Extra coursework

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning7

  • Other Instrumental Conditioning Issues

    • Shaping - Molding responses gradually to a desired pattern

    • Successive Approximations: Ever-closer matches

    • Extinction

  • Antecedents

    • Operant Stimulus Generalization: Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those that preceded operant reinforcement. How can this lead to superstitions?

    • Operant Stimulus Discrimination: Occurs when one learns to differentiate between the stimuli that signal either an upcoming reward or a nonreward condition.

    • Cueing

    • Setting Events

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning8

  • Instrumental Conditioning Schedules

  • Definition: Reinforcers do NOT follow every response

  • Schedules of Reinforcement: Plans for determining which responses will be reinforced

  • Continuous Reinforcement: A reinforcer follows every correct response

  • PartialReinforcement Effect: Responses acquired with partial reinforcement are very resistant to extinction

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 4 operant conditioning9

  • Instrumental Conditioning Schedules

  • Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR): A set number of correct responses must be made to obtain a reinforcer.

  • Variable Ratio Schedule (VR): Varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer.

  • Fixed Interval Schedule (FI): The first correct response made after a certain amount of time has elapsed is reinforced; produces moderate response rates.

  • Variable Interval Schedule (VI): Reinforcement is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time

Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning


Chapter 5 applications of conditioning

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 –Applications of Conditioning


Chapter 5 application

  • Using Reinforcement

  • Specify the desired or terminal behavior.

  • Use extrinsic reinforcement only when the desired behavior is not already present.

  • Identify truly reinforcing consequences.

    • How do you know?

  • The gain has to be greater than the loss (sufficient strength).

  • Clearly describe the relationship between behavior and consequence.

  • Be consistent.

  • Gradually shape the more complex behaviors.

  • When publicly awarded, make sure all individuals have the potential to earn the reinforcement.

  • Use objective criteria to measure performance (Merit Club).

  • Foster the ability to delay gratification.

  • Gradually wean learners off the reinforcement when the terminal behavior occurs regularly.

Chapter 5 –Application


Chapter 5 application1

  • Decreasing undesirable behaviors

  • Extinguish the response.

  • Present noncontingent reinforcement.

  • Reinforce other/opposite behaviors.

  • Using punishment/ discipline.

Chapter 5 –Application


Chapter 5 application2

  • Using Punishment

  • Choose a punishment with sufficient strength without being overly severe.

    • How do you know?

  • The loss has to be greater than the gain (sufficient strength).

  • Clearly describe the behavior to be punished and the relationship between behavior and consequence.

  • Be consistent.

  • Be immediate whenever possible.

  • Apply with an attitude of caring (unconditional regard).

  • Explain or reassert why the behavior is inappropriate.

  • Modify the environment when possible to reduce tempting behavior.

  • Teach more appropriate responses (skill streaming).

Chapter 5 –Application


Chapter 5 application3

  • Applied Behavior Analysis

  • Instructional Objectives

  • Computer Assisted – Instruction

  • Mastery Learning & PSI

Chapter 5 –Application


Chapter 5 application4

  • When are the Behavioral approaches best?

  • Students with

    • Limited motivation

    • Elevated levels of anxiety

    • Behavioral issues

    • A developmental disability or learning delay

    • Males?

Chapter 5 –Application


Chapter 2 learning the brain

  • Questions & Discussion

Chapter 2 –Learning& the brain


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