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Human Learning & Memory. Siena Heights University Chapters 3, 4 & 5 Dr. S.Talbot. Basic Asssumptions Equipotentiality . Learning should be studied objectively (S-R). Internal processes are excluded from study (SOR). Learning involves a ________ change.

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human learning memory

Human Learning & Memory

Siena Heights University

Chapters 3, 4 & 5

Dr. S.Talbot

chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning

Basic Asssumptions

    • Equipotentiality.
    • Learning should be studied objectively (S-R).
    • Internal processes are excluded from study (SOR).
    • Learning involves a ________ change.
    • Organisms are ______ slates (tabula rasa).
    • Learning/ conditioning is the result of _____________ events.
    • The most useful theories are _______.
Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning
chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning1

Classical Conditioning (a.k.a. signal learning) & Pavlov

  • Russian physiologist who initially was studying digestion
  • Used dogs to study salivation when dogs were presented with meat powder
  • Also known as Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning
  • Reflex: Automatic, nonlearned innate

response e.g., an eyeblink

Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning
principles of classical conditioning
Expectancy: Expectation about how events are interconnected
  • Acquisition: Training period when a response is reinforced
  • Extinction: ________ of a conditioned response through removal of _____________
  • Spontaneous Recovery: ____________ of a learned response following apparent extinction
Principles of Classical Conditioning
slide6

Principles of Classical Conditioning

  • Expectancy: Expectation about how events are interconnected
  • Acquisition: Training period when a response is reinforced
  • Spontaneous Recovery: Reappearance of a learned response following apparent extinction
  • Stimulus Generalization: A tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus (e.g., responding to a buzzer or a hammer banging when the conditioning stimulus was a bell)
  • Stimulus Discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to various stimuli (e.g., Paula will respond differently to various bells (alarms, school, timer))
  • Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning
of
chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning2

Higher – order conditioning

    • Includes combining an NS to an already established CS.
  • Sensory Preconditioning & test anxiety
Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning
chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning3

Extinction: Weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement

  • Problems with the use of extinction.
    • The speed of extinction is ___________.
    • Due to second – order conditioning, there may be many associated variables.
      • Difficult to extinguish all of the tem.
    • Spontaneous recovery.
    • Due to avoidance of feared stimuli, people may not get a chance to unlearn the conditioned response.
  • Alternatives
    • Counterconditioning of more _________ responses.
Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning
chapter 3 behaviorism and classical conditioning4

Educational Assumptions

    • How do you get to Carnegie Hall? Practice, practice, practice or exposure, exposure, exposure.
    • The academic setting should be a positive and pleasant environment.
    • To break a bad habit, replace one S - R with an more desirable S – R.
      • Exhaustion method.
      • Threshold method.
      • Incompatibility method.
    • Assessment of learning involves the observation of behaviors.
Chapter 3 – Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning1

B.F. Skinner (1938)

    • A response that is followed by a reinforcer is strengthened and therefore more likely to occur again.
    • Reinforcer – a stimulus or event that increases the frequency or likelihood of a response it follows.
  • Instrumental/ Operant Conditioning
    • Reinforcer follows the response (immediately).
    • Reinforcer is contingent on the response.
  • How is this different than Classical Conditioning?
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning2
Primary Reinforcer: Nonlearned and natural; satisfies biological needs (e.g., food, water, affection)
  • Secondary Reinforcer: Learned reinforcer (e.g., money, grades, approval)
  • Positive Reinforcement: When a response is followed by a reward or other positive event
  • Negative Reinforcement: When a response is followed by the _______ of an unpleasant event (e.g., the bells in Fannie’s car stop when she puts the seatbelt on) or by an ____ to discomfort (escape behaviors).
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning3

Intrinsic Reinforcer

  • Extrinsic Reinforcer
    • Positive Feedback
    • Social Reinforcer?
  • Problems with each?
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning4

Punishments: Any consequence that reduces the frequency of a target behavior

    • Positive Punishment/ Punishment I
    • Negative Punishment/ Punishment II
    • Restitution
    • Restitution Overcorrection
    • Positive – practice overcorrection
    • Time – out
    • In-house suspension
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning5

Punishments/ Discipline:

    • Any punishment should
      • Be _______ to the behavior
      • Be ________ in strength to modify behavior
      • Indicate the desired behavior
      • Be immediate & consistent
      • Convey ______
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning6

Punishments which may be innappropriate.

    • Physical and psychological punishment
    • Social isolation (i.e. missing recess, going to the corner of the room, suspensions etc…)
    • Extra coursework
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning7

Other Instrumental Conditioning Issues

    • Shaping - Molding responses gradually to a desired pattern
    • Successive Approximations: Ever-closer matches
    • Extinction
  • Antecedents
    • Operant Stimulus Generalization: Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those that preceded operant reinforcement. How can this lead to superstitions?
    • Operant Stimulus Discrimination: Occurs when one learns to differentiate between the stimuli that signal either an upcoming reward or a nonreward condition.
    • Cueing
    • Setting Events
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning8

Instrumental Conditioning Schedules

  • Definition: Reinforcers do NOT follow every response
  • Schedules of Reinforcement: Plans for determining which responses will be reinforced
  • Continuous Reinforcement: A reinforcer follows every correct response
  • PartialReinforcement Effect: Responses acquired with partial reinforcement are very resistant to extinction
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 4 operant conditioning9

Instrumental Conditioning Schedules

  • Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR): A set number of correct responses must be made to obtain a reinforcer.
  • Variable Ratio Schedule (VR): Varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer.
  • Fixed Interval Schedule (FI): The first correct response made after a certain amount of time has elapsed is reinforced; produces moderate response rates.
  • Variable Interval Schedule (VI): Reinforcement is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time
Chapter 4 –Operant Conditioning
chapter 5 application

Using Reinforcement

  • Specify the desired or terminal behavior.
  • Use extrinsic reinforcement only when the desired behavior is not already present.
  • Identify truly reinforcing consequences.
    • How do you know?
  • The gain has to be greater than the loss (sufficient strength).
  • Clearly describe the relationship between behavior and consequence.
  • Be consistent.
  • Gradually shape the more complex behaviors.
  • When publicly awarded, make sure all individuals have the potential to earn the reinforcement.
  • Use objective criteria to measure performance (Merit Club).
  • Foster the ability to delay gratification.
  • Gradually wean learners off the reinforcement when the terminal behavior occurs regularly.
Chapter 5 –Application
chapter 5 application1

Decreasing undesirable behaviors

  • Extinguish the response.
  • Present noncontingent reinforcement.
  • Reinforce other/opposite behaviors.
  • Using punishment/ discipline.
Chapter 5 –Application
chapter 5 application2

Using Punishment

  • Choose a punishment with sufficient strength without being overly severe.
    • How do you know?
  • The loss has to be greater than the gain (sufficient strength).
  • Clearly describe the behavior to be punished and the relationship between behavior and consequence.
  • Be consistent.
  • Be immediate whenever possible.
  • Apply with an attitude of caring (unconditional regard).
  • Explain or reassert why the behavior is inappropriate.
  • Modify the environment when possible to reduce tempting behavior.
  • Teach more appropriate responses (skill streaming).
Chapter 5 –Application
chapter 5 application3

Applied Behavior Analysis

  • Instructional Objectives
  • Computer Assisted – Instruction
  • Mastery Learning & PSI
Chapter 5 –Application
chapter 5 application4

When are the Behavioral approaches best?

  • Students with
    • Limited motivation
    • Elevated levels of anxiety
    • Behavioral issues
    • A developmental disability or learning delay
    • Males?
Chapter 5 –Application
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