Parasitology 寄生蟲學. Handbook of medical parasitology Edited by Zaman and Loh. 寄生蟲學課程內容. Parasites 寄生蟲種類 Morphology 形態 Pathogenicity 致病性 Life cycle of parasites 生活史 Clinical aspects 臨床症狀 Treatment 治療 Diagnosis 檢驗. Introduction to Parasitology. Classification of parasites.
Handbook of medical parasitology
Edited by Zaman and Loh
Classification of parasites
International Code Zoological Nomenclature
Morphology Genetic structure
Species ; types ; races ; strains
Life cycle of parasites
Routes of infection
Oral infection (ingestion)
Mucous membrane infection
Inoculation by arthropod vector
Sexual intercourse (venereal transmission)
Classification of parasites
Helminths 蠕蟲： Cestodes絛蟲
Parasite 寄生蟲- An organism which is dependent on another
parasitoid organism for its survival.
Host 宿主- An organism which harbours the parasite and is
usually larger than the parasite.
Ectoparasite 外寄生- A parasite which lives on the outside of
Endoparasite 內寄生- A parasite which lives within the body
of the host..
Facultative parasite 兼性寄生- A parasite which capable of
living both freely and as a parasite.
Obligate parasite 絕對寄生- A parasite which is completely
dependent upon the host.
Commensal片利共生- A parasite which does not damage the
Symbiont共生物- A parasite which contributes to the
welfare of the host.
Symbiosis 共生作用- A situation in which host-parasite
relationship results in advantages rather than
Pathogen 病原- A parasite which is able to produce
Pathogenicity 致病性-Is the ability of a parasite to produce
Virulence 致病毒力- Refers to the degree of pathogenicity.
Reservior host 儲備宿主- Where the parasite is
maintained in nature and which acts as a source for
individual new cases.
Intermediate host中間宿主- A host in which the
intermediate stages of the parasite develop.
Definitive host 終宿主- A host in which the definitive or
the final stages of the parasite.
Paratenic host 保幼宿主- A host which acts as a
transporting agent for the parasite and in which
the parasite does not undergo any development.
Infection 感染- Means the presence of a parasite in or on
the tissues of a host. Such colonization may or may
not have a deleterious effect on the host.
Disease 疾病- If parasite has a deleterious effect on the
Infestation 侵染,感染- The presence of arthropods on the
skin of the host.
Epidemic 流行性- The sudden appearance of an infection
which spreads rapidly and involves large population.
Endemic 地方性,本土性- An infection which has always
existed in a region.
Pandemic 全球性– A widespread epidemic, usually of
world-wide proportion. These are mainly viral diseases.
Incubation 潛伏期– The time between the entrance of a
parasite into a host and the beginning of the disease.
Habitat 棲所– The natural abode of a parasite species.
Ecology 生態– The relationship between a population of
an organism and the environment. When this is a
balanced relationship the host remains healthy.
Disease is manifested when this relationship breaks down.
Zoonosis 人畜共通疾病– Diseases of animals which are
transmissible to man.
Anthroponosis 人畜共通疾病-Diseases of man which are
transmissible to animals.
Incidence 發生率– Is a number of new cases occurring
within a given period of time, often expressed as the
number per 100,000 people per year.
Prevalence 盛行率– Is the proportion of people who have
the disease at a certain time in a designated area.
Opportunistic parasites or infections 伺機性寄生蟲或感染–
Parasites which are not normally pathogens but
become so due to impairment of host resistance.
These are assuming increasing clinical importance
because of the AIDS epidemic.
Morbidity 致病(罹患)率– Incidence of disease in a given
population, including both nonfatal and fatal cases.
Mortality死亡率– Incidence of death in a given population.
In vivo體內– In the body, in a living organism.
In vitro體外– In culture medium.
Monoxenous species– parasite fully develop in one host
Heteroxenous species– parasite development more than one
Cell-mediated immunity細胞中介免疫– An immune
response generated by the activities of non-antibody
Humoral immunity體液免疫– An immune response due
to the activities of antibodies.
Active immunity主動免疫– An immune state achieved
by self production of antibodies.
Passive immunity被動免疫– An immune state resulting
from transfer of antibodies from an immune to a non