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Quality Control at production sites and in sales channels ARNOLD TIMMER, UNICEF REGIONAL OFFICE CEE/CIS & Baltics 13 October 2004 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Quality Control at production sites and in sales channels ARNOLD TIMMER, UNICEF REGIONAL OFFICE CEE/CIS & Baltics 13 October 2004. This presentation:. Linking quality control with overall programme aim Identify main programmatic challenges Identify main monitoring attention points

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Quality Control at production sites and in sales channels ARNOLD TIMMER, UNICEF REGIONAL OFFICE CEE/CIS & Baltics 13 October 2004

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Quality Control at production sites and in sales channelsARNOLD TIMMER, UNICEF REGIONAL OFFICE CEE/CIS & Baltics13 October 2004


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This presentation:

  • Linking quality control with overall programme aim

  • Identify main programmatic challenges

  • Identify main monitoring attention points

  • Discussion and apply lessons learned to your own monitoring system


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Purpose

  • Establishment of a monitoring system that can

    • identify problems,

    • provide solutions,

      and

    • ensure that corrective measures are taken.


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Main Aim External Monitoring

  • Ensure adequate iodine levels in salt at household level

  • Ensure consumers’ access to iodized salt


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Programmatic Issues

  • Quality of iodized salt production?

  • Iodine loss in salt between factory and consumption?

  • Use of iodized salt for food processing?

  • Use of iodized salt for animal consumption?

  • Access of all population groups in all geographic areas to iodized salt?


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Programmatic Issues

  • Enforcement challenges?

    • Illegal salt: repackaging as iodized?

    • Sale of non-iodized salt (originally produced as technical salt or edible salt)?

    • Access of consumers to technical and/or non-iodized animal salt?

    • Capacity to implement government standards (as spelled out in legislation): technical (testing equipment, training), inadequate manpower, roles/responsibilities not defined?


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Use of information

  • Who reports on information collected?

  • How is the information reported?

  • Does the reported information address your programmatic concerns?

  • How will monitoring information be used?

  • Who will use the information?

  • How will the collected information lead to corrective measures in the production, distribution and use of iodized salt?

  • Will the corrective measures have an effect on the final aim to ensure adequate iodine status of the consumer?


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Salt Iodizaton Monitoring System

Salt

Producers

Retail

Stores

Households

Target

Population

Salt

Importers

Utilization and Impact

Access

Coverage


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Salt Iodization Monitoring System

Certificate of quality

Locally

Produced

salt

Quality

Control

Inspection

Technical

Auditing

Quality

Assurance

Retail

Inspection

Imported

salt

Certificate of conformity

Industry (internal)

External

Commercial


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Salt Producers

And Distributors

Market

Household

Impact

For

House-

hold

use

Salt

Production

Wholesale

Retail

Traders

Consumer

Population

Nutrient Status

For food

Industry

Salt Iodization Monitoring System

Illegal production & trade

Iodine content in salt

min. 15 ppm

40 + 15 ppm


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Salt Iodization Monitoring System

Iodine content in salt

  • Factors of influence:

  • Time

  • Humidity

  • Temperature/light

  • Packaging material

  • Quality of salt

  • KIO3 or KI


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Studies: China

  • Salt used:

    • 572 samples from 58 salt companies from 31 provinces

    • Refined (purified, crushed) and unrefined crude salt

  • Storage conditions, in kitchen:

    • Plastic container with cover

    • Closed plastic bag

    • In plastic bag but open

    • Sealed big sack in factory

  • Thoroughly mixed and samples analyzed at:

    • 3 – 6 – 9 – 12 months


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Results - China

  • Results:

    • No changes in iodine content during 1 year even in unrefined salt, even in open bags.

    • Concentration varied over time in crude salt because iodine is less homogeneous in the salt.


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Studies - Macedonia

  • Normal temperature (20 C), humidity (40%) and light

  • Normal temperature (20 C), humidity (40%) and no light

  • High temperature, normal humidity and no light

  • Normal temperature (20 C), high humidity and no light

  • Duration 5 months


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Macedonia: Iodine Content (mg/kg)


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Macedonia: Iodine Content (mg/kg)


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Macedonia: Iodine Content (mg/kg)


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Studies: Micronutrient Initiative: - salt from several countries -

  • Humidity: 60% and 100%

  • Temperature: 20 and 40 C

  • Packaging: polyethylene, woven bags

  • Analyses 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months

  • Results:


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Source: Micronutrient Initiative


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Source: Micronutrient Initiative


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Main iodine losses

  • Refined salt retains iodine better than unrefined salt

  • KIO3 is better retained than KI in salt

  • Polyethylene package retains iodine better than carton or jute package, and better than no package

  • In high humidity iodine retention is lower

  • In high temperature iodine retention is lower

  • Light does not influence iodine retention

  • Retention of KIO3 in salt is 70-80% after 1 year in low humidity, polyethylene packages.


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Programmatic Considerations

  • What can be easily changed??

    • Fortificant: KI or KIO3

    • Quality of salt

    • The way and time salt is stored between factory and household

    • The way people use and store salt at the household

    • The way salt is packaged


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Programmatic Considerations

  • What can be easily changed??

    • Fortificant: KI or KIO3

    • The way salt is packaged


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source: USI monitoring manual - 1995


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External monitoring:Focus: what, where to monitor?

  • Iodine level adequate?

    • Production!

    • Wholesale?

    • Retail?

    • Household?

  • Check if the monitoring you propose answers the programmatic questions that apply

    • Is iodized salt production adequate and reliable?

    • Do you need to identify areas/population groups with no availability to iodized salt?

    • Is counterfeited salt/smuggling an issue?

    • Etc.


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Monitoring at retail level

  • Retail shops may sell iodized salt and/or non-iodized salt. The main purpose for monitoring at retail level is to identify areas where:

    • An inadequate proportion of shops is selling iodized salt

    • Non-iodized salt is available in the market

    • Salt packaged and labelled as iodized is not adequately iodized


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How to collect the information?

  • Traditionally, iodine in salt tests:

    • Test kit

    • Titration

    • WYD checker

  • Salt situation analysis

  • Salt producers: where does salt flow, clients

  • Household surveys

  • NGO and other reports

  • National coalition meetings

  • Observations


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Use of information

  • Who reports to whom?

    • SES to national coalition

    • Salt producers to salt association

    • National coalition to Minister of Health

  • How is information used?

    • Define clear corrective actions to be taken:

      • Change number of samples and where samples should be taken

      • Change standards

      • Information campaigns

      • Strengthen partnerships


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Consider importance of corrective action

  • Moderate climate, refined (high quality) salt in polyethylene, retention of iodine is of no concern if used within 1 year.

  • Monitor:

    • Establish QA at factory level to ensure iodized salt produced according to standard

    • Monitor iodine in salt at retail or household level;

    • If acceptable, no action required

    • If not acceptable, check and improve quality of iodized salt, or increase iodization level

    • Address other programmatic issues in your monitoring system

  • Measures to improve household storage and use are a waste of time and effort and will show little result


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Discussion

  • Identify programmatic concerns

  • Identify weaknesses in current monitoring and reasons

  • Recommendations for further discussion in group work


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