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MIS 518 – Term Project OM Decisions and Software Projects. Turhan Atar Alp Eren Aydın Mehmet Nuri Can. 10 OM Decisions. Design of goods and services Managing quality Process and capacity design Location strategy Layout strategy Human resources and job design Supply chain management

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mis 518 term project om decisions and software projects

MIS 518 – Term Project OM Decisions and Software Projects

Turhan Atar

Alp Eren Aydın

Mehmet Nuri Can

10 om decisions
10 OM Decisions
  • Design of goods and services
  • Managing quality
  • Process and capacity design
  • Location strategy
  • Layout strategy
  • Human resources and job design
  • Supply chain management
  • Inventory management
  • Scheduling
  • Maintenance

Software quality is fundamental to software product success.

  • Yet quality as a concept is difficult to define , describe and understand
  • Quality has a strong subjective element
  • Quality experts including some with a software background have proposed models , not to measure quality itself but to measure surrogate attributes such that when combined can provide some notion of the quality of product
standart types
  • ISO/IEC 9126
  • CMM
iso iec 9126
ISO/IEC 9126
  • ISO and International Electrical Technical Commision have developed ISO/IEC 9126 for Software Engineering
  • It is focusing on end product quality more than software process quality
  • There are some concerns were voiced both by customers and developers and were manifested in the following questions :
    • Why does it take so long to complete a software project ?
    • Why are the efforts so high? This in turn increases the cost.
    • Why can’t we ensure error-free software?

There was a need for a more disciplined effort in developing software.

  • The software engineering practices provided a framework for building high quality software.
  • Software Engineering Institute (SEI) developed a Capability Maturity Model (CMM) , which defined key performance areas from an initial level of maturity to a level of optimisation.

Some of the organizations didn’t following any standards during software development and had problem with quality aspects of the software.


The software products need further improvement after released and unsatisfied customer with the quality or performance of the products.


The development of software certification model is beneficial not only to the users but also to the vendor and stakeholders as well.


Software certification can be implemented in three different approaches : product , process and people

  • Benefits :
    • Provides useful information that can prevent users that buying software that has doubtful quality level
    • A mechanism that can generate a form of confidence to customers

Can enforce discipline by encouraging the use of good software engineering practices and standards during development

  • An alternative approach for continuous software quality improvement
  • Enhancing and improving the quality and productivity of software development process

Most of the existing software certification models are directly focused on assessing and certifying software through its product quality approach.

  • Quality of software products should be evaluated separately from the software development process.

Many researchers believe product-based approach can give confidence to consumers about the quality of software.

  • Product based approach is hard to practice especially for the new software which just ready to be marketed or delivered.

Deming’s premise that

«The quality of the product is largely governed

by the quality of process used to develop it.»

software quality factors
Software Quality Factors
  • The role of software in human life is continuously increased and demanded, therefore software developers were competed to produce software faster and quicker.

Software development methodology is important because it is to ensure the successful of development of products quality , increase productivity and ensure that the software had been developed in a cost effective manner.


Apart from technology and environmental factors, it is also necessity to focus on the quality of developers.

  • They are designing , developing, changing the system
  • Skills and creativity of the developers can give an impact on software process effectiveness.

The quality of developer can be measured in terms of skills, training and motivation.

  • Factors for determining the effectiveness of software processes were identified by four main factors
  • Human, Management, Economics , Technology

As we have seen factors were derived into several sub factors in order to easily defined the quality attributes or metrics and measures for each of them.

  • And for each sub factor , measurement goals, metrics and measure have been defined by applying the Goal-Question-Metric method.

Each goal contains one or several questions.

  • The question represents how each goal can be measured.
  • For each question , the metrics to be measured are defined and at least one measure is derived for each metrics.
  • The measure is used to determine appropriate quality achievement of each metrics.
  • 16% of software projects are on time and within budget (Lingberg, 1999)
  • 62 percent of IT projects fail to meet their schedules (Asay, 2008)
  • IS project failure reasons
    • Project managers don’t understand users’ needs.
    • The project’s scope is ill-defined.
    • Project changes are managed poorly.
    • The chosen technology changes.
    • Business needs change.
    • Deadlines are unrealistic.
    • Users are resistant.
    • Sponsorship is lost.
    • Managers ignore best practices and lessons learned.
    • The project lacks people with appropriate skills.
knowledge and capabilities
Knowledge and Capabilities
  • The necessity to find better ways to produce software products of high quality and within budget has lead to considerable research efforts investigating new means for improving an organisation\'s ability to plan, forecast, manage, implement, and control its activities in projects where people and their capabilities have a major impact on project performance and its quality.
  • In particular, the specific character of software tasks is such that, in many cases, tasks cannot be expedited (or in some cases even solved) by human resource reallocations or by adding extra resources. That is, software tasks are not resource-driven. These tasks cannot be defined as fixed-duration tasks because they are dependent first of all on people knowledge/skill capabilities which are different. The vast majority of software tasks are cognitively driven (self-managing intellectual work).
  • Contemporary approaches to resource allocation founded on the assumption that different jobs require equal capability resources, and only one skill is involved. Hence, they cannot be successfully used for software projects, where different software tasks require different sets of multiple knowledge/skill capabilities for a task performance.
staffing decision
Staffing Decision
  • One of the most critical factors driving the success of software projects: the staffing decision
  • As projects slipped behind schedule, managers would attempt to increase the staff at fairly late stages in order to speed up the project. However, employing more people would result in higher communication and training overheads, thereby affecting adversely the productivity of the existing staff, and setting the project back even further.
  • To assign right person to the right project is a complicated decision. Major contributors to the outcome of software projects are personnel assignment decisions
staffing decision1
Staffing Decision
  • Managing software personnel remains a very complicated endeavor. A major contributor to this complexity is the increased demand for specialized individual skills in the workforce, which results from high turnover rates and the fast pace at which new technologies and techniques are being developed. As a result of higher demands, candidates with exact required skills to work tasks are usually not available. Due to the lack of proper methods to assess personnel capabilities, decision makers are forced to assign resources to tasks based on subjective measures only. This results in excess training times that significantly affect the schedule of projects.
  • Because a resource allocation methodology in software projects is not common and well-determined, most managers make allocation decisions in a highly subjective manner. Software managers typically make assignments based on ‘‘their experience, heuristic knowledge, subjective perception, and instinct"
contemporary project management models
Contemporary Project Management Models
  • Duggan, Byrne, & Lyons (2004) developed a multi-objective optimization model for software task allocation based on genetic algorithms.
  • Tsai, Moskowitz & Lee (2003) proposed selecting resources using the CRD method and the Taguchi’s parameter design approach.
  • Another methodology used to evaluate staffing alternatives is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).
contemporary project management models1
Contemporary Project Management Models
  • Antoniol, Cimitile, Lucca, & Penta (2004) used queuing theory and stochastic simulation to study staffing needs for software maintenance problems.
  • Shaikh (1998) presented a model for project staff reallocation. The objective of the model was to increase the probability of projects finishing on time by avoiding delays caused by lack of needed work-force at scheduled start dates. The model, based on the Lead Time concept from Inventory Theory
  • Abdel-Hamid (1989) proposed a model to study the dynamic implications of staffing policies to the cost and schedule of projects.
lack of contemporary project management models
Lack of Contemporary Project Management Models
  • Contemporary project management scheduling approaches cannot be sufficiently used for software projects.
  • They are concerned with resource availability and utilisation, and do not provide study, analysis and management of resource capabilities and compatibilities.
  • For the moment there is no widely accepted methodology for scheduling and staffing software projects. Nevertheless there are some models which have been desinged in the last years.
mixed linear p rogram
Mixed-Linear Program
  • Heimerl and Kolisch offers a mixed-linear program with a tight linear programming-bound for simultaneous scheduling and staffing multiple projects with a multi-skilled human workforce with heterogeneous and static efficiencies.
  • The objective function minimizes the labor costs of internal and external resources which accrue by processing the work packages of the projects.
padberg s model
Padberg’s Model
  • Padberg F. presents a generic model for software projects which explicitly takes a scheduling strategy as input.
  • No process modelling language is used in that model, just standard mathematical notations with a probabilistic approach.
  • When the scheduling strategy is fixed, the model outputs a probability distribution for the project completion time and a completion time estimate.
  • The model describes the software process at a high level of abstraction : teams work on, software components.
  • The intention is to keep the model as lean as possible for the time being and classical process phases such as coding or testing are not used in that model.
best fitted resource bfr
Best – Fitted Resource (BFR)
  • BFR methodolgy defines many inputs and allocate the resources to the projects by using linear programming.
  • There are 5 steps to describe those inputs and to find outputs;
    • Task Required Skills(TRS) – TRS Table
    • Skill Relationships(SR) – SR Table
    • Resources’ Skill Set(RSS) – RSS Table
    • Best-Fitted Resource(BFR) – BFR Table
    • Resource Allocation to Multiple Tasks (RA)
  • H: set of all skills
  • H(t): set of required skills for task t
  • ejt : expected use of skill j on task t. Assigned values range from 0 to 1
    • 1 = highly used
    • 0 = not used
  • cjt: complexity of skill j on task t. Assigned values range from 0 to 1
    • 1 = high level of complexity on the task for this skill
    • 0 = no complexity
  • sjt: significance of skill j on task t = cjp ejp. Calculated values range from 0 to 1
    • 1 = critically important
    • 0 = not important
  • rjk: relationship between the level of knowledge of known skill j and the level of knowledge for required skill k. Assigned values range from 0 to 1
    • 1 = strong relationship
    • 0 = no relationship
    • if j = k and the level of knowledge of both j and k are equal, then rjj =1
  • lyj: level of knowledge of resource y for skill j. Assigned values range from 0 to 1
    • 1 = expert
    • 0 = no knowledge
  • byj: relationship between resource y and its known skills and skill j calculated values range from 0 to 1
    • 1 = strong relationship; resource y is an expert in the skill or a highly related skill
    • 0 = no knowledge in the skill or in a related skill
  • Fyt: fit of resource y to task t. Calculated values range from 0 to 1
    • 1 = strong fit
    • 0 = resource is a bad fit for the task
  • Definition
  • Components of HRM
  • Planning
  • Attracting
  • Developing; Recruitment(Internal or external) and selection
  • Evaluating
  • Motivating and Rewarding Employees
  • Maintaining High Performance
  • Motivation Theories
  • Conflict Management
  • Job analysis; Job description and Job specification
human resources management is
Human Resources Management is
  • A series of integrated decisions that form the employment relationship; their quality contribures to the ability organisation and employees to achieve their objectives

- Milkovich and Boundreau

human resources management is1
Human Resources Management is
  • The planning, organising, directing and controlling of procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and seperation of human resources to the end that individual, organisational and social objectives are accomplished

Edwin B. Flippo

main components of hrm
Main Components of HRM
  • Planning
  • Attracting
  • Placing, Developing and Evaluating
  • Motivating and Rewarding Employees
  • Maintaining High Performance
  • Human Resource Planning is the process of forecasting a firm’s future demand for, and supply of the right type of people in the right number. It includes how many qualified people necesssary to carry out assigned activities. Human resources planning translates the organisations objectives and plans into number and quality of workers needed to meet those objectives.
human resources plan shoud include
Human Resources Plan Shoud Include
  • Roles and Responsibilities; Role, Authority, Responsibility and Competency
  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix and Organization Chart
  • Staffing Management Plan; Staffing acquisition, Resource Calenders, training needs, recognition and rewards
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors; Organisational Culture, Personnel, infrustructure
hierarchical chart
Hierarchical Chart

Responsibility Assisment Matrix and Hierarchical Chart

should be in allignment with each other in terms of authority.

  • Identify Job Openings
  • Review Job descriptions; Job title, location, job summary, duties, machine tools, working conditions
  • Review job specifications; Education, experience, training, responsibilities, emotional characteristics.
  • Determine your recruitment method; School, college, university visits, advertisement, use of government agencies, contact with professional labour associations, company website.
developing recruitment internal or external and selection
Developing; Recruitment(Internal or external) and selection
  • Sources of Recruitment(External and Internal)
  • Recruiting Yield Pyramid
  • Internal vs External Recruitment(advantages disadvantages)
  • Process of Selection
  • Factors affecting selection
internal recruitment
Internal Recruitment


It is less costly

Candidates are already oriented towards organization

Organization has better knowledge of candidates

Enhancement of Employee Morale and motivation


It abets raiding(make a person provide something)

Candidate’s current work may be affected

Politics play great role

Morale problems for those not promoted

external recruitment
External Recruitment


Benefits of new skill, new talent and experiences to the organization

Scope of resentment, jeaulosies and heartburn are avoided


Better Morale and motivation associated with Internal recruiting is denied to the organisation

it is costly

process of selection
Process of Selection
  • Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify those with greater likelihood of success in a specific job. Right Combination of education, work experience, attitute and creativity should be met.
selection criterias
Selection Criterias
  • Experience
  • Background
  • Attitude
  • Reliability
  • References; Former work supervisors are most useful, Letters from friends are useless for predicting future success
factors affecting selection
Factors affecting Selection

External Environment

  • Supply and demand of specific skill
  • Unemployment rate
  • Company’s image
  • Legal and Political consideration

Internal Environment

  • Human Resources Plan
  • Cost of Hiring
factors affecting it human resources selection
Factors Affecting IT Human Resources Selection
  • Technical Specialties, knowledge skills; languages known(C, C++, COBOL), Data Management, Structured programming
  • Technology Management knowledge/skills; Ability to leran new technology, ability to understand technological trends
  • Business Function knowledge/skills;ability to learn business functions,ability to understand business environment
factors affecting it human resources selection1
Factors Affecting IT Human Resources Selection
  • Interpersonel and management knowledge/skills; Ability to plan executive work in a colloborative environment, ability to teach others, ability to accomplish assignments
  • Previous project performances
  • Evaluation maintains motivation of the organisation and strengthen the companies’ culture. It helps the employees to increase their performance and organisation to provide rewards for the ones with outstanding performance.
  • Evaluation is done according to previously defined task for specific job.
motivating and rewarding employees
Motivating and Rewarding Employees
  • In this part, the results of evaluating phase plays an important role. Evaluation basically determines the performance of each individual with success or completion of given or expected tasks. The ones with poor performance will be retrained and warned about their previous performence. The ones with outperformance will be rewarded with Incentives such as compensation, promotion and etc. Those incentives in the organization motivates people to adjust themselves expected performance
maintaining high performance
Maintaining High Performance

The Organization is expected to work with high performance in order to do that we need to maintain high motivation among team members, The incentives below positively reinforces high Performance;

  • Organization Culture; Fair with standard rules to everyone
  • Career path within the organization
  • Respect of others within organization
  • Accaptance and belonging of the organization.
  • Sense of connection with the organisation
motivation theories
Motivation Theories
  • Mcgrager’s X and Y theory
  • Davis Mcclelland’s Theory
  • Herzbergs Theory
conflict management
Conflict Management
  • Conflicts could be an oppourtunity for improvement
  • Conflicts are inevitable consequences organisational interactions.

Reasons of Conflicts

  • Schedules
  • Project prioritization
  • Resources
  • Technical opinions
problem solving steps
Problem solving steps
  • Define the couse of the problem; Is it emotionally based or performance based?
  • Analyze the problem
  • Identify solution
  • Get approval of the stakeholders of the problem
  • Implement a decision
  • Review the decision and confirm the problem is solved
facts about conflicts
Facts about conflicts
  • If the conflicts are not resolved completely, they just return again and again
  • Coflict is best resolved by those involved in the conflict
  • The focus should be on the problem not on the personality or attitudes of the ones involved.
  • It is recommended to document suggested changes or commitments by the ones whom are involved in conflict for future use.
job analysis
Job Analysis
  • Job analysis is the process of studying, positioning,collecting information relating to operations and responsibilities of specific job.
  • The result of job analysis produces job specification and job description.
steps of job analysis
Steps of Job Analysis
  • Collecting and recording job information
  • Checking the job information for accuracy
  • Writing job description based on information
  • Using the information, determine skills, abilities and knowledge
  • Updating information time to time with new requirements
job description
Job Description
  • Job title
  • Location
  • Job Summary
  • Duties
  • Working condition
  • Hazards
  • Supervision
  • Material knowledge
job specification
Job Specification
  • Education
  • Experience
  • Training
  • Initiative
  • Physical effort
  • Responsibilities
  • Communication skills
  • Emotional Chatacteristics
job analysis1
Job Analysis
  • After we conpleted the job description and the job specification, We could continue with recruiting and selection,after selection, the success and expected criterias will be explained to the employee, that is followed by Career path design. According to the performance of employee, the rewards or extra training, based upon success rate, are applied. Wage and salary determined according to the required tasks from the employer and the wages of people in the organization. If the employee does the expected duties accordingly, Training will be provided according the needs of his/her career path.
it job analysis
IT job Analysis
  • IT jobs requires more specification compared to business analysis.
  • It is hard to analyze IT jobs because there are many items that are due to change every year, programming trends, Job analysis should be dependent on observable behaviours, If work behavior(s) are not observable, the job analysis should identify and analyze those aspects of the behavior(s) that can be observed and the observed work products
it job analysis1
IT Job Analysis
  • In IT projects job Analysis should include;
  • Expected technical and managerial skills of the job
  • The companies software structure
  • Companies Infrustructure
  • Company’s Culture; how are the things done
  • Daily basis and project basis routines
  • Companies IS direction