Drug abuse and addiction
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Drug abuse and addiction. objectives. Analyze substance abuse and give 2 symptoms of the disorder Compare and contrast the models of addiction (biological and learning model). overview. Most people who use drugs (legal, illegal, prescription) use in moderation

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Drug abuse and addiction

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Drug abuse and addiction

Drug abuse and addiction


Objectives

objectives

  • Analyze substance abuse and give 2 symptoms of the disorder

  • Compare and contrast the models of addiction (biological and learning model)


Overview

overview

  • Most people who use drugs (legal, illegal, prescription) use in moderation

  • HOWEVER some people depend too much on them= abuse

  • DSM IV defines substance abuse as “ a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress”


Symptoms of substance abuse

Symptoms of substance abuse

  • Failure to hold a job

  • Care for children

  • Complete school work

  • Use in hazardous situations ( car, operating machinery)

  • Frequent conflict with others about use of drug or as a result of drug use


Biology and addiction

Biology and addiction

  • Biological model- addiction, alcohol or drug, is due primarily to a persons biochemistry, metabolism, and genetic predisposition

  • Twin and family studies of alcoholism

  • Too simple to say genes cause alcoholism; stronger in men and types of alcoholism


Biology and addiction1

chapter 11

Biology and addiction

The biological model holds that addiction is due primarily to a person’s biochemistry, metabolism, and genetic predisposition.

More evidence comes from twin studies.


Alcoholism gene

Alcoholism gene ?

  • Brain receptors from dopamine (neurotransmitter for pleasure) not well supported

  • Best evidence is for gene protects against alcoholism

  • Metabolism of alcohol= enzyme

  • People who lack this enzyme respond with flush face, nausea

  • Common among Asians not Europeans- alcoholism rates lower in Asian countries


The addicted brain

chapter 11

The addicted brain


Biological factors cont

Biological factors cont…

  • Biology can cause addiction…

  • However ADDICTIONS CAN RESULT FROM THE ABUSE OF DRUGS

  • Drugs change the brain

  • Heavy drinking alters brain functions

  • Painkilling abuse reduces cerebral cortex

  • Voluntary action can = addiction


Learning culture and addiction

Learning ,culture and addiction

  • Learning model- examines role of environment , learning, and culture in encouraging or discouraging drug abuse and addiction

  • Four major findings underscore this


Learning culture and addiction1

chapter 11

Learning, culture, and addiction

Addiction patterns vary according to cultural practices and the social environment.

Policies of total abstinence tend to increase addiction rates rather than reduce them.

Not all addicts have withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug.

Addiction depends on both the drug and the reason for taking it.


Factors in learning model

Factors in learning model

  • Addiction patterns vary according to cultural practices and the social environment

  • More alcoholism when children forbid to drink but adults condone it (Ireland)

  • Less when children how to drink responsibility and discourage adult drunkenness

  • Latin- drunkenness male activity so few female drunks


Factors continued

Factors continued

  • Policies of total abstinence tend to increase rates of addiction rather than reduce them

  • Prohibition- reduced alcohol consumption but increases alcoholism

  • Did not learn to drink responsibly so over drank when had chance


Factors cont

Factors cont….

  • Not all addicts have withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug

  • 30 % of Vietnam vets on heroin- 90 % just get off drug


Factors in additction

Factors in additction

  • Addiction does not depend on properties of the drug alone but also on the reasons for taking it

  • People use morphine and live just fine


Debating solutions to addiction

Debating solutions to addiction

  • Drinker learn to drink or over after first drink?

  • How can we critically think and asses both positions?

  • Mostly should ask which factors make it more likely that someone can have a problem drinking (alcoholism)


Summary

Summary

  • Substance abuse

  • Biological

  • Learning model


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