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District Heating and Cooling through the Utilization of Untapped Energy Sources. Tokyo Toshi Service Co., Ltd. (TTS). Heat Supply Status (as of the end of FY2005). Heat supplied. Water. Ice thermal. Total floor. Heat sales. Heating. Cooling. Heat. region. thermal. storage. Heat

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district heating and cooling through the utilization of untapped energy sources

District Heating and Cooling through the Utilization of Untapped Energy Sources

Tokyo Toshi Service Co., Ltd. (TTS)

APEC 2007/1/29

heat supply status as of the end of fy2005
Heat Supply Status(as of the end of FY2005)

Heat supplied

Water

Ice thermal

Total floor

Heat sales

Heating

Cooling

Heat

region

thermal

storage

Heat

suppliers

area

volume

capacity

capacity

all areas

storage tank

tank

supplied

3

3

regions

(1000㎡)

(1000㎡)

(1000GJ)

(GJ/hr)

(GJ/hr)

(m

(m

89

153

45,053

47,015

25,072

15,820

13,655

265,885

22,627

Nationwide

1

16

1,819

3,338

1,376

619

876

86,906

320

TTS

(Source: Heat supply project booklet 2006)

(Note: TTS operates in 17 regions + one region that is not subject to the Heat Supply Business Law)

APEC 2007/1/29

untapped energy sources as of the end of fy2005

Natural

energy

sources

Untapped Energy Sources (as of the end of FY2005)

Nationwide

TTS

Untapped energy sources

Classification

Waste incineration/plant

8

0

Subways

Urban

2

0

Substations/transformers

waste

10

5

Waste/reclaimed oil

heat

3

0

Power plant extraction steam

2

0

6(1)

1

Recycled wastewater/sewage

River water

4(1)

1

Sea water

4

0

Groundwater

2(1)

1

Total

41(3)

8

(Source: Heat supply project booklet 2006)

Figures in ( ): regions adopting other energy sources

APEC 2007/1/29

tts monthly heat sales results fy2005

Annual heat sales (17 regions): 1.39 million GJ

products ・Cold water: 79%

          ・Hot water: 19%

           ・Hot water supply: 2%

250,000

200,000

Cold water for air-conditioning

150,000

Hot water for air-conditioning

GJ

Hot water supply

100,000

50,000

0

May

July

April

June

March

August

January

October

February

December

November

September

TTS Monthly Heat Sales Results (FY2005)

APEC 2007/1/29

features and effectiveness of tts system
Features and Effectiveness of TTS System

Heat pump

Introduced in 17 regions

Thermal storage

Treated sewage effluent, river water, underground water, substation waste heat: utilized in 8 regions

(Air-conditioning waste heat: utilized in 17 regions)

Untapped energy sources

APEC 2007/1/29

slide6
Effectiveness of Heat Recovery Pump(Recovery of air-conditioning waste heat, one form of untapped energy)

Air-conditioning waste heat is recovered (heat recycling) from autumn to spring, enabling extensive energy conservation

COP:

Electric power input=1 

Cold water generation=3.5

Hot water generation=4.0

(Simultaneous production of cold/warm heat)

During thermal storage

Heat pump

Electric power

Heat exchanger

Hot water storage tank

Cold waterstorage tank

APEC 2007/1/29

heat pump operation during summer
Heat Pump Operation (during summer)

Heat energy: 6

Heat exchanger (condenser)

Sewage effluent

Energy (electric power): 1

Compressor

Motor

Pressure

Heat energy: 5

Reduced pressure

Heat exchanger (vaporizer)

Cold water

Heat intake

APEC 2007/1/29

thermal storage tanks
Thermal Storage Tanks

■Mechanism

■Thermal storage

■Effectiveness

During thermal storage

●Improvement of energy utilization efficiency by continuous rating operation

●Downsizing of heat pump capacity:

・ Downsizing from A to B

・ Requires less space for the control/ operations room

Load

Cold water storage tank

Hot water storage tank

Heat pump

Time

22

① Store ice, cold/hot water at night

② Release heat during day in accordance with the variations of air-conditioning loads

③ Heat shortages offset by heat pump

Thermal Storage tank & Distributor

APEC 2007/1/29

multifunction storage tanks community tanks
Multifunction Storage Tanks (“community tanks”)

Regular use:

・Cold/hot water for air-conditioning

Special uses:

・ Toilet flushing water

・ Domestic water: laundry/washing

Emergency use:

 ・Fire fighting

APEC 2007/1/29

untapped energy sources characteristics and issues

Location

 ・

Long distance between untapped

energy sources and users

Untapped Energy Sources: Characteristics and Issues

■ Characteristics

■ Utilization issues

(Excluding high-temperature

exhaust heat fromincineration plants, etc.)

Timing

Available heat

variations

Untapped

Availability

Difficult to match availability of untapped

energy

energy source with user demand

sources

Low

Moderate

High

High

Moderate

Low

Treated

sewage effluent

River water

Temperature

Sea water

Insufficient heat level of untapped

Recycled

energy sources often make the

wastewater

utilization by users difficult.

Industrial water

Resolution: combination of a heat pump and a storage tank

APEC 2007/1/29

project example heat supplied areas
Project example:Heat Supplied Areas

Operations began April 1991

Supplied area

Distribution pipes

Higashi Kanto highway

Heat source water pipes

Users

●Heat supplied areas

Sumitomo Chemical Engineering Co., Ltd.

Seiko Instruments Inc.

Canon Inc.

IBM Japan

Part of Hibino 1 and 2 and Nakase 1 and 2, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba Pref.

Central plant

Robot FA

●Supplied floor areas

Makuhari Kaihin Park

SHARP

2nd plant (planned)

48.9ha

Makuhari Techno Garden

Messe Mall

●Plant location

Hotel Springs

FUJITSU

Nakase 1-3 G, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba Pref.

Plant total areas: 3,124㎡

Makuhari Annex

Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd.

KITS

Aeon Co., Ltd.

●Heat supply system

Kaihin Makuhari Station

JR Keiyo Line

Storage heat pump, utilizing electric power at night (heat source: treated sewage)

Inbanuma sewage treatment pond to Hanami river terminal water treatment plant

Inbanuma sewage treatment pond to Hanami river 2nd terminal water treatment plant

APEC 2007/1/29

project example central plant system summer time

To the

second

plant

Project example:Central Plant System(Summer time)

Cooling tower

Heat source (treated sewage effluent )

Turbo refrigerator

(in the future)

Users

Heat exchangers 1800RT×4

Heat exchanger 750RT

Heat exchanger 1500RT

Low heat exchanger

Hot water storage tank

Cold water storage tank

HP: water heat source heat pump

DB: double band heat recovery pump

APEC 2007/1/29

project example principal equipment
Project example:Principal Equipment

Heat medium

Cold water (temp. at time supplied )

Hot water (temp. at time supplied )

Temperature

Pressure

Principal equipment at the central plant

Unit

Capacity/# of units

Heat recovery pump

Cooling RT

Heating MJ

Treated sewage effluent heat pump

Cooling RT

Heating MJ

Heat sources

Refrigerator

Cooling RT

Total cold heat

Total heat

Cold water tank

Hot water tank

Storage tanks

Hot/cold water tank

Storage tank total

APEC 2007/1/29

project example treated sewage effluent temperature

Apr.

Apr.

May

May

Jun.

Jun.

Jul.

Jul.

Aug.

Aug.

Sept.

Sept.

Oct.

Oct.

Nov.

Nov.

Jan.

Jan.

Mar.

Mar.

Dec.

Dec.

Feb.

Feb.

Project example:Treated Sewage Effluent Temperature

o Stable temperature throughout the year compared to outside air

o Effective as heat source for a heat pump due to lower temp. than OAT in

summer/higher temp. in winter.

50

Hot water: 48℃

Hot water: 48℃

40

30

20

10

Cold water: 5℃

Cold water: 5℃

0

4月

5月

6月

7月

8月

9月

10月

-10

Maximum OAT

Maximum OAT

Minimum OAT

Minimum OAT

Sewage avg. temp.

Sewage effluent

APEC 2007/1/29

project example effectiveness of the utilization of untapped energy sources

Sewage effluent HP (cold water)

Sewage effluent HP (hot water)

Air heat HP (cold water)

Air heat HP (hot water)

Project example:Effectiveness of the Utilization of Untapped Energy Sources

Heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) Aug. 2004/Jan. 2005)

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

COP

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Average temp.(℃)

Sewage effluent HP (cold water)

Sewage effluent HP (hot water)

Air heat HP (cold water)

Air heat HP (hot water)

APEC 2007/1/29

project example effectiveness of the utilization of untapped energy sources17

COP of Heat Recovery Pump (Mar. 2005)

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

R-3

5.0

R-4

4.0

COP

R-5

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

Average outside air temperature (℃)

Project example:Effectiveness of the Utilization of Untapped Energy Sources

APEC 2007/1/29

project example heat generation ratio by pump type 2004
Project example:Heat Generation Ratio by Pump Type (2004)

Dependency on sewage effluent heat: 63%

Sewage effluent HP (cold water)

Sewage effluent HP (hot water)

Turbo HP (cold water)

Heat recovery pump (cold water)

Heat recovery pump (hot water)

APEC 2007/1/29

project example effectiveness of the utilization of untapped energy sources19

Apr.

May

Jun.

Jul.

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Project example:Effectiveness of the Utilization of Untapped Energy Sources

Cold water

COP

Hot water

Hot water supply (steam)

Note: COP=heat sales (GJ)/ total plant energy input (GJ)

APEC 2007/1/29

project example effectiveness of utilization of untapped energy sources
Project example:Effectiveness of Utilization of Untapped Energy Sources

■ Reduction effects

Combustion

Air heat pump

38%

13%

Energy conservation

Reduction of CO

47%

13%

2

Water conservation

~230,000m3

~120,000m3

Notes:

・Combustion method: boiler + absorption chiller

・Primary energy basic unit (electric power): 9760kJ/kWh

・CO2 emission basic unit: electric power: 0.381kg/kWh gas: 2.362kg/m3

APEC 2007/1/29

total energy efficiency in domestic heat supplied areas fy2005
Total Energy Efficiency in Domestic Heat Supplied Areas (FY2005)

Projects introduced in this presentation

Air-conditioning by electric power (thermal storage) (untapped energy utilized) 0.7 to 1.3

Air-conditioning by electric power (thermal storage) 0.7 to 1.2

Cogeneration system 0.5 to 0.8

Total energy efficiency

Air-conditioning by gas 0.45 to 0.8

○Thermal storage (untapped energy)

□Thermal storage (general)

△Gas (cogeneration)

×Gas (general)

●Combined

Air-conditioning by electric power/gas 0.45 to 1.0

Energy sales (GJ)

Source: Heat supply project booklet 2006

Calculated by electricity: 9,760kJ/kWh and city gas: 46.0MJ/m3

Total energy efficiency = energy sales/primary energy input

APEC 2007/1/29

challenges in the utilization of untapped energy sources
Challenges in the Utilization of Untapped Energy Sources

■Technological challenges:

○ Development of affordable untapped energy networking technologies

   ○ Materialization of network concept and development of utilization technologies

■Social issues:

○ Incorporation into social system: i.e. getting society to think of waste heat

utilization the way people think about recycling their garbage

○ Collaboration with various types of urban infrastructure planners/construction

companies

  ○ Establishment of effective project subsidy schemes and further improvement of

government’s support

Ongoing projects:  ・Project for Supporting New Energy Operators

               ・ “Eco-town Networking Project”

■Recent developments:

○ New National Energy Strategy (issued May 31, 2006)

        ・ “Promotion of Untapped Energy Utilization”

APEC 2007/1/29

slide23
Thank you for your attention!

TTS

APEC 2007/1/29

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