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Chapter Ten. Effective Groups and Teamwork. 10-1a. Chapter Ten Outline. Fundamentals of Group Behavior Formal and Informal Groups Functions of Formal Groups The Group Development Process Group Member Roles Norms Teams, Trust, and Teamwork A Team is More Than Just a Group

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Chapter Ten

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Chapter ten

Chapter Ten

Effective Groups and Teamwork

Chapter ten


Chapter Ten Outline

  • Fundamentals of Group Behavior

    • Formal and Informal Groups

    • Functions of Formal Groups

    • The Group Development Process

    • Group Member Roles

    • Norms

  • Teams, Trust, and Teamwork

    • A Team is More Than Just a Group

    • Trust: A Key Ingredient in Teamwork

    • Self-Managed Teams

    • Virtual Teams

Chapter ten


Chapter Ten Outline (continued)

Threats to Group and Team Effectiveness

  • Groupthink

  • Social Loafing

Chapter ten


Figure 10-1

Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theoryof Group Development





Return toIndependence




Chapter ten


Figure 10-1

Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theoryof Group Development (continued)






“How do I fit in?”

“What’s myrole here?”

“What do theothers expectme to do?”

“How can I bestperform my



“Why are we here?”

“Why are wefighting overwho’s incharge and whodoes what?”

“Can we agreeon roles andwork as a


“Can we do thejob properly?”

Chapter ten


Table 10-2

Task and Maintenance Roles

Task RolesDescription

InitiatorSuggests new goals or ideas

Information seeker/giverClarifies key issues

Opinion seeker/giverClarifies pertinent issues

Elaborator Promote greater understanding

CoordinatorPulls together key ideas and suggestions

Orienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s)

Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishments

Energizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish more

Procedural Technician Performs routine duties

Recorder Performs a “group memory” function

Chapter ten


Table 10-2

Task and Maintenance Roles (cont)

Maintenance RolesDescription

EncouragerFosters group solidarity

HarmonizerMediates conflict through reconciliation or humor

Compromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others”half way”

Gate Keeper Encourages all group members to participate

Standard setter Evaluates the quality of groupprocesses

CommentatorRecords comments on group processes/dynamics

FollowerServes as a passive audience

Chapter ten


Social Norms

Norm:“An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action -- shared by two or more people -- that guides their behavior.”

Why Norms Are Enforced

  • Help the group or organization survive

  • Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations

  • Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations

  • Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity

Chapter ten



Team:“A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.”

The Evolution of a Team

  • Awork group becomes a team when:

  • Leadership becomes a shared activity.

  • Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual

    and collective.

  • The group develops its own purposeor mission.

  • Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity.

  • Effectiveness is measured by the group’s collective outcomes and products.

Chapter ten



Trust:“Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behavior.”

How to Build Trust

  • Communication(keep everyone informed; give feedback; tell the truth).

  • Support(be available and approachable).

  • Respect(delegate; be an active listener).

  • Fairness(give credit where due; objectively evaluate performance).

  • Predictability(be consistent; keep your promises).

  • Competence(demonstrate good business sense and professionalism).

Chapter ten


How to Prevent Group Think

  • Every group member a critical evaluator

  • Avoid rubber-stamp decisions

  • Different groups explore same problems

  • Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts

  • Assign role of devil’s advocate

  • Rethink a consensus

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