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Reactions :. BASIC DATA (Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry). “In all conventional processes, reaction takes place in the liquid phase, ...”. “The reaction of ethylene oxide with ammonia takes place slowly and is accelerated by water.”.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

BASIC DATA

(Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry)

“In all conventional processes, reaction takes place in the liquid phase, ...”

“The reaction of ethylene oxide with ammonia takes place slowly and is accelerated by water.”

“The reaction is highly exothermic; the enthalpy of reaction is about

125 kJ per mole of ethylene oxide. ”

“All the reaction steps have about the same activation energy and show a roughly quadratic dependence of the reaction rate on the water content of the ammonia – water mixture used. ”

slide3

PERFORMANCE

Type of reaction?

Mixed reactions:

NH3, MEA: Multiple in series

EO: Multiple in parallel

Performance choice?

Maximum selectivity

Conversion target?

Multiple in series reactions: low conversion (50%?)

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Product

Feed

PF

CSTR

CONCENTRACIÓN

CONCENTRATION

Product

Feed

For safety reasons, ethylene oxide must be metered into the ammonia stream ; in the reverse procedure, ammonia or amines may cause ethylene oxide to undergo an explosive polymerization reaction.

FLOW PATTERN

slide5

CONCENTRATION

Performance choice: maximum selectivity

Stoichiometric ratio?

NH3 >> EO

slide6

TEMPERATURE

Performance choice: maximum selectivity

“All the reaction steps have about the same activation energy and show a roughly quadratic dependence of the reaction rate on the water content of the ammonia – water mixture used. ”

Selectivity does not depend on temperature: maximum T (reduces reactor volume).

“The reaction is highly exothermic ; the enthalpy of reaction is about 125 kJ per mole of ethylene oxide. ”

Intensive cooling required.

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PRESSURE

Objetivo: máxima selectividad

“All the reaction steps have about the same activation energy and show a roughly quadratic dependence of the reaction rate on the water content of the ammonia – water mixture used. ”

“In all conventional processes, reaction takes place in the liquid phase, ...”

Selectivity does not depend on pressure: minimum P required to keep liquid phase (temperature depending).

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PRACTICAL REACTOR

  • Liquid phase reaction.
  • Homogeneous catalytic.
  • Flow pattern: PF (NH3 and MEA) and CSTR (EO).
  • Highly exothermic: cooling required
  • High pressure.

“The reaction of ethylene oxide with ammonia takes place slowly and is accelerated by water.”

  • High residence time.

Multi-tubular cooled reactor, with multiple intermediate EO feed points.

slide9

SEPARADOR

DIAGRAM

slide10

Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

“All the reaction steps have about the same activation energy and show a roughly quadratic dependence of the reaction rate on the water content of the ammonia – water mixture used. Therefore, product composition depends solely on the molar excess of ammonia and not on water content, reaction temperature, or pressure. The product distribution as a function of the molar ratio of the reactants is shown in Figure.”

slide11

Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

“Today, ethanolamines are produced on an industrial scale exclusively by reaction of ethylene oxide with excess ammonia, this excess being considerable in some cases ”

“In all conventional processes, reaction takes place in the liquid phase, and the reactor pressure must be sufficiently large to prevent vaporization of ammonia at the reaction temperature.”

“In current procedures, ammonia concentrations in water between 50 and 100 % , pressures up to 16 MPa (160 bar), reaction temperatures up to 150 °C, and an excess up to 40 mol of ammonia per mole of ethylene oxide are used. ”

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