Japan fukushima update september 4 2013
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Japan Fukushima Update September 4, 2013. C hanges being implemented in the Nuclear industry resulting from the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 (Fukushima) Ken Evans Cecil Settles. Background of the accident Nuclear Industry Response Nuclear Regulator Commission Response

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Japan Fukushima Update September 4, 2013

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Japan Fukushima UpdateSeptember 4, 2013

Changes being implemented in the Nuclear industry resulting from the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 (Fukushima)

Ken Evans

Cecil Settles


  • Background of the accident

  • Nuclear Industry Response

  • Nuclear Regulator Commission Response

  • IEMA Actions


CNN News Clip


Japan Facts

  • Japan145,000 square miles

  • State of California163,695 square miles

  • State of Illinois 57,914 square miles

  • Fukushima Prefecture 5,321 square miles

  • State of Connecticut 5,554 square miles

  • Sangamon County 868 square miles

  • Japan127.34 million people

  • Fukushima Prefecture 1.99 million people

  • California 38.04 million people

  • Connecticut 3.50 million people

  • Chicago 2.67 million people


Impact

15,881 Dead /2,668 Missing

Zero deaths attributed to radiation

  • The 4th worst recorded earthquake since 1890.

  • Honshu Island shifted about 2.5 m (~ 8 feet) eastward and downward

  • Earth’s day shortened by ~1.8 microseconds. Increased

    wobble of the earth on axis by ~ 6.7 inches.


3/11/2011

2:46 pm Magnitude 9 earthquake

03:41 pm Tsunami. Diesel Generators lost

6:00 pm Unit 1 Reactor Vessel Pressure Increase

7:00 pm Evacuation to 3 km – Dai-ichi

03/12/2011

05:44 am – Evacuation to 10 km

09:00 am – Unit 1 Venting

3:36 pm – Unit 1 Explosion

5:30 pm – Evacuation to 10 km – Dai-ni

6:45 pm – Evacuation to 20 km – Dai-ichi

8:00 pm – Unit 1 Seawater injection


03/13/2011

09:20 am – Unit 3 Vented to reduce pressure

11:00 am – Unit 3 Hydrogen Explosion

03/15/2011

01:25 am – Unit 2 RCIC fails

06:00 am – Unit 4 Explosion & fire

06:10 am – Unit 2 Suppression Pool explosion

09:38 am – Unit 4

11:00 am – Shelter 20-30 km - Daichi

03/16/2013

05:45 – Unit 4 Fire

All workers briefly leave site due to high doses


Fukushima Dai-ichi

(Site 1)

Unit 1

Unit 4


Fukushima Dai-ni

(Site 2)


Quad Cities


Unit 3

Unit 4


Unit 1 Explosion Sequence

03/12/2011 (3:36 pm)


Unit 3 Explosion

03/13/2011 (11:00 am)


Unit 3 Explosion Video


The next 3 Slides are current views of Fukushima


August 20, 2013


August 20, 2013

Unit 5 & 6

9 Temp. Tanks ~158,400 gal. (total)

7 Underground Reservoirs

~ 15,000,000 gal. (total)

~ 264,170 gallons per tank

~ 26,417 gallons per bladder


fukushima-no-3-Reuters.jpg

Unit 3

Refueling Floor Crane

125 Ton


Unit 4

Fuel Pool

Support Structure


Locating accurate information in the first

48 hours was incredibly difficult

The American Nuclear Society was one of the first and best websites


…other sources, not so good


Significant Nuclear Events

YearReactor Location Event

1957Windscale (UK)Fire / Operator Error

1961SL1(US)Explosion / Operator Error

1975Browns Ferry (US)Fire / Testing

1979TMI (US)Core Melt / Operator / INPO

1983Salem (US)Equipment / Safety Related

1986Chernobyl (USSR)Design / Control / WANO

1999Blayais (France)Flooding

2001WTC(US)Security / External Events

2002Davis Besse (US)Corrosion / Safety Culture

2003PAKS (Hungary)Spent Fuel Pool Cooling

2011Fukushima (Japan)Flooding / Core Melt

201110 Plants (Japan)Flooding


Nuclear Industry and NRC Response


Significant Organizations

NRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission – Ultimate civilian authority

NEI – Nuclear Energy Institute

INPO – Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

EPRI – Electric Power and Research Institute

WANO – World Association of Nuclear Operators

IAEA – International Atomic Energy Agency


Post Fukushima Assessments of Note

  • NEI / INPO / EPRI - The Way Forward - U.S. Industry Leadership in Response to Events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

  • NRC - Recommendations for Enhancing Reactor Safety in the 21st Century The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights From The Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident.

  • The National Diet of Japan - Executive Summary of the Interim Report Investigation Committee on the Accidents at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company December 26, 2011

  • ANS Nuclear News – Special Report – Fukushima Dai-ichi


US Nuclear Industry Response

  • Industry initiatives in place before NRC regulations

  • FLEX - Diverse and flexible coping capability. Relies on diverse and multiple emergency assets

FLEX

Diverse and flexible

Portable equipment and strategies

Emergency equipment pre-staged Onsite

Emergency equipment pre-staged Offsite


Dresden – Portable Berm - FLEX

6 feet

40 foot section

Each 40 foot section contains a rubber bladder that is filled through a pump and water line


Dresden - Portable Pumps - FLEX


Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Task Force of senior NRC experts

Report issued on July 12, 2011 (Recommendations for Enhancing Reactor Safety in the 21st Century The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights From The Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident)

No imminent risk from continued operation

Enhancements to safety and emergency preparedness are warranted

12 Recommendations to the NRC Commission


NRC Regulatory Framework for the 21st Century

  • Recommendation 1

    Framework for Defense-in-depth versus Risk

  • Recommendation 2

    Reevaluate and upgrade Design-Basis Seismic and Flooding protection at each reactor

  • Recommendation 3

    NRC evaluate potential enhancements to prevent or mitigate seismically induced fires and floods (Long Term)

.


NRC Regulatory Framework for the 21st Century

(continued)

  • Recommendation 4

    Strengthen Station Black Out. Design-Basis and Beyond-Design-Basis

  • Recommendation 5

    Require Hardened Vents in BWR Mark I and Mark II containments

  • Recommendation 6

    Hydrogen control and mitigation inside containment (Longer Term)


NRC Regulatory Framework for the 21st Century

(continued)

  • Recommendation 7

    Spent Fuel Pool makeup and instrumentation

  • Recommendation 8(Ken’s Presentation Area)

    Strengthen and integrate emergency response

    EOPs / SAMGs / EDMGs

  • Recommendation 9

  • Prolonged Station Blackout and multi-unit events.

.


NRC Regulatory Framework for the 21st Century

(continued)

  • Recommendation 10

    Additional EP topics for multiunit events and prolonged SBO (Longer Term)

  • Recommendation 11

  • EP topics related to decision-making, radiation monitoring, and public education. (Longer term)

  • Recommendation 12

    Reactor Oversight Program. More attention on Defense-in-Depth requirements.

.


Implementation of Recommendations

THREE-TIERED PRIORITIZATION

  • Tier 1 Activities

    • Started without unnecessary delay

  • Tier 2 Activities

    • Need further technical assessment

    • dependence on Tier 1 issues

    • availability of critical skill sets

  • Tier 3 Activities

    • Further NRC Staff study

    • Waiting on completion of shorter-term actions

    • Dependent on the critical skill sets

    • Dependent on resolution of NTTF Recommendation 1


Tier 1

  • Seismic and flood hazard reevaluations

  • Seismic and flood walk downs

  • Station blackout (SBO) regulatory actions

  • Equipment covered under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 50.54(hh)(2)

  • Hardened Vents for Mark I and Mark II containments

  • Spent Fuel Pool FP instrumentation

  • Emergency operating procedures, Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs), and extensive damage mitigation guidelines

  • Emergency preparedness staffing and communications


  • Tier 2

  • Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) makeup

  • Emergency preparedness regulatory actions


Tier 3

  • All items identified as long-term in the NTTF report

  • Ten-year confirmation of seismic and flooding hazards

  • Seismically induced fires and floods

  • Reliable hardened vents for other containment designs

  • Hydrogen control and mitigation

  • EP for prolonged SBO and multiunit events

  • ERDS capability

  • Additional EP topics for prolonged SBO and multiunit events

  • Decision-making /radiation monitoring / public education

  • Reactor Oversight Process modifications. Defense-in depth staff training on severe accidents and SAMGs


Recommendations for further consideration

  • Filtration of containment vents

  • Instrumentation for seismic monitoring

  • Basis of emergency planning zone size

  • Prestaging of Potassium Iodide beyond 10 miles

  • Transfer of spent fuel to dry cask storage

  • Loss of ultimate heat sink


IEMA Actions

  • Provided comments on NRC Recommendations

  • Conducted internal assessments

  • Developed Action Plans based on internal assessments

  • Continued monitoring of Fukushima changes in Illinois

  • Continued monitoring of NRC Fukushima task force actions

  • IEMA Nuclear facility Inspection staff has been orientated

    to Illinois licensee’s plant specific FLEX Mitigation Plan”


Questions ?


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