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Chapters 32 pages 809-814. Vietnam #2 Reading Quiz. 1) What was the Tonkin Gulf Resolution? 2) What was the “Credibility Gap”? 3) How did LBJ widen the war? 4) Why were we in Vietnam? 5) What was the Tet Offensive? 6) What was the Gulf of Tonkin incident?

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Vietnam 2 reading quiz
Vietnam #2 Reading Quiz

1) What was the Tonkin Gulf Resolution?

2) What was the “Credibility Gap”?

3) How did LBJ widen the war?

4) Why were we in Vietnam?

5) What was the Tet Offensive?

6) What was the Gulf of Tonkin incident?

7) What happened in the 1968 democratic primary?

8) What did LBJ announce in 1968?


U.S.S. Maddox- On 2 August 1964, while on patrol in the Gulf of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

Orders were to conduct some electronic eavesdropping, monitoring North Vietnamese radio traffic, and to support South Vietnamese patrol boat raids on North Vietnamese Coastal Radar.

Most historians are nearly certain that no communist attack had occurred.

During the night of 4 August a second attack was believed to have taken place against both the Maddox and the Turner Joy, leading to retaliatory strikes on North Vietnam by U.S. carrier planes.

U.S.S. Maddox

U.S.S. Turner Joy


Tonkin gulf resolution jan 7 1964
Tonkin Gulf Resolution- Jan 7, 1964 of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • The resolution passes unanimously in the House, and by a margin of 82-2 in the Senate. The Resolution allows Johnson to wage all out war against North Vietnam without ever securing a formal Declaration of War from Congress.

  • Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.

  • Johnson did not believe the Commander in Chief needed this resolution (approval)


1965 of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • U.S. combat troops in Vietnam- 3,500

  • Johnson orders bombing of North Vietnam.

  • “The one thing that the American people will not take is another shooting war in Asia.” That’s what they got.

  • To avoid defeat more and more American power was needed. Johnson committed the U.S. to victory in Vietnam. We must avoid humiliation.

  • Over 47,000 men to Vietnam

  • By the end of 1965- over 185,000 men in Vietnam.


Civilian casualties in vietnam
Civilian Casualties in Vietnam of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

1:17 min.


Why are we in vietnam
Why are we in Vietnam? of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • “Domino Theory”- Eisenhower

  • Stop Aggression

  • Protect our reputation- our “credibility”


Credibility gap
Credibility Gap of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • Johnson did not tell Congress his intention to escalate the war.

  • He did tell Congress how much it will cost.

  • He was worried the the full truth would hurt the Great Society plans.

  • He wanted to be a leader in war and a leader of peace.

  • Credibility Gap- between what the President wanted people to believe and what was really believable.

  • People began to doubt what their President would tell them.


The peace offensive anti war protest
The Peace Offensive + Anti-War Protest of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • Senators who voted for the Tonkin Gulf Resolution changed their minds.

  • Anti-War Teach-ins

  • Protest marchers in Washington D.C.

  • December 23, 1965- LBJ halts the bombing- “a peace offensive” to explore diplomatic avenues to end the war.


1966 support and opposition
1966- Support and Opposition of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • 1966- 400,000 men and women in Vietnam.

  • Casualties rising- 2,500 in 1965 to 33,000 in 1966.

  • War not making progress

  • New Left- student groups- anti war.

  • Most Americans believe that the U.S. should not walk away.

  • 1965-Opinion polls show American’s favor LBJ- 66%

  • 1966- 44% support LBJ

  • Sec. of Defense McNamara wants a negotiated peace.


1967 support and opposition
1967- Support and Opposition of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • 1967- 1,000 non-combatants are killed weekly.

  • U.S. dropping more bombs on Vietnam than all of WWII.

  • 1967- Pentagon papers- a commissioned study of the role of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam.

  • 1967- 475, 000 troops, and casualties of 80,000.

  • 300,000 march in New York; 100,000 at the Pentagon.

  • College demonstrations across the country.


Anti war protest vietnam moratorium
Anti-War Protest- Vietnam Moratorium of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

RFK denounces war:24 min.

4:01 min.


Rolling thunder
Rolling Thunder of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

2:10 min.


1968 tet offensive
1968- Tet Offensive of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • January- “Tet” lunar new year.

  • Gen. Westmoreland tells the country how the war is being won.

  • The Vietcong and North Vietnamese 84,000, attacked 36 of 44 provincial towns in addition to 5 of 6 autonomous cities, 72 of 245 district towns, and many military bases and airfields on the same day. They even attack the U.S. embassy.

  • All is retaken in few difficult weeks.

  • NLF, Vietcong, are crushed as a fighting force.

  • Westmoreland wants 206,000 more troops and more fighter squadrons.

  • Graphic film footage of the fighting reinforced concerns about casualties, and the fact the offensive took place undermined the White House's claims that victory had been in sight.

  • Did we really win the Tet Offensive?


Tet offensive
Tet Offensive of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

2:04 min.


My lai massacre march 16 1968
My Lai Massacre - March 16, 1968 of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • American soldiers under the command of Lt. Calley entered the village of My Lai on a Search and Seizure mission.

  • By the end of the day the soldiers had slaughter between 175-400 men, women and children of the village.

  • Lt. Calley called the victims- non humans, an enemy with whom one could not speak or reason.

  • Lt. Calley had no remorse, and said simply that he was following orders- the “mere gook rule”, which meant he could be a self appointed Judge, jury and executioner.

  • Due to some large losses in Charlie Company, Calley had said the Capt. had given orders to treat all native as the enemy and destroy everyone and everything in My Lai.

  • Often prisoners in such cases were used as guides over trails that could be booby trapped or to walk first through mine fields. If they were too slow they were shot.

  • The orders of the day were common- burn the houses, kill the animals, destroy food and wells and round up the people. Lt. Calley was found guilty and served 1/3 of the sentence, and received a dishonorable discharge.


Fall of lbj
Fall of LBJ of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

  • Anti-War activists challenged LBJ for the Democratic nomination for President in 1968- Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy

  • LBJ’s advisors and other world leaders thought the war was being handled badly and the U.S. should get out.

  • Mar. 31, 1968- LBJ resticts bombing and calls for peace talks.

  • “I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president.”

  • Peace Talks begin in May of 1968 and drag on for months without success. Our longest war.


Nva tunnels
NVA Tunnels of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

Angled walls; airshafts were camouflaged and entryways disguised by filled wells dropping 50 feet. Variety of types: squad-size tunnels- less than 6-feet deep and 100-feet long; company-size tunnels were wider b; and battalion-size tunnels could burrow 50 feet underground and up to four different levels. Extensive booby-trapping


New weapons of combat in vietnam
New Weapons of Combat in Vietnam of Tonkin, she was attacked by North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats- torpedoes and machine gunfire.

1:45 min


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