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Aquatic Exercise & Special Populations. By Kris Hinnerichs. Where we’re going…. Hydrodynamics Aquatic Exercise Benefits of Aquatic Exercise Special Populations Program Design. Hydrodynamics. Archimedes’ Principle Specific Gravity Movement in Water Newton’s Laws

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Presentation Transcript
where we re going
Where we’re going…
  • Hydrodynamics
  • Aquatic Exercise
  • Benefits of Aquatic Exercise
  • Special Populations
  • Program Design
hydrodynamics
Hydrodynamics
  • Archimedes’ Principle
  • Specific Gravity
  • Movement in Water
  • Newton’s Laws
  • Conservation of Momentum
archimedes principle
Archimedes’ Principle
  • A body in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the water displaced
application of archimedes principle
Application of Archimedes’ Principle
  • People weight very little in water
  • Most of our energy is put into moving in the water and very little is used to “carry” ourselves
  • This is especially valuable for those who have difficulties moving around on land
specific gravity
Specific Gravity
  • The ratio of weight of a body to the weight of the water it displaces.
specific gravity1
Specific Gravity
  • Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.0
  • Specific gravity < 1.0 will float
    • Adipose tissue
  • Specific gravity > 1.0 will sink
    • Muscle
    • Bone
  • Children and the elderly tend to have less muscles and more fat
  • Young adults tend to have more muscle
form drag
Form Drag
  • Resistance related to the object’s shape and profile to the water
    • Tight, narrow shapes have less form drag
    • Broad, wide shapes have more form drag
wave drag
Wave Drag
  • Resistance caused by water turbulence
  • Directly proportional to swimming speed
  • The more activity in the water, the more turbulence and wave drag
newton s laws
Newton’s Laws
  • Law of Inertia--force is needed to
    • move a body at rest,
    • stop a body in motion, or
    • change the direction of a moving body
  • Static inertia is the tendency of a body at rest to stay at rest
  • Dynamic inertia is the tendency of a moving body to keep moving
conservation of momentum
Conservation of Momentum
  • Circular patterns are more effective than linear patterns
  • Back-and-forth linear movements require force to stop moving in one direction and more force to start moving in another direction
  • Abrupt changes of linear motion may throw your body out of alignment, requiring more force to overcome the increased drag
aquatic exercise
Aquatic Exercise
  • Factors that affect your workout
    • Bouyancy and water depth
    • Resistance
    • Speed of movement
    • Type of movement
benefits of aquatic exercise
Benefits of Aquatic Exercise
  • Psychosocial
    • Enhance physical fitness
    • Assist with weight management
    • Improve motor function
  • Social
    • Peer-group interaction
    • Normalization of inclusion
    • safety
benefits of aquatic exercise1
Benefits of Aquatic Exercise
  • Psychological
    • Psychological growth
    • Improvement of well-being and confidence
    • Experience success
    • Enhance self-image
    • Have fun
    • Independent mobility
older adults benefits
Older Adults—benefits
  • About 30 mill. people in the US are 65 and older
  • Exercise is key for good health and independent living
  • Achieve enriched quality of life
  • Primary goals
    • reach and maintain a level of fitness,
    • Improve one’s physical condition
    • Delay onset of chronic disease
older adults guidelines
Older Adults—guidelines
  • Water at least 83* F
  • Less activity than that for a younger group
  • Explain safety features before you begin
    • Lifeguard location
    • Pool layout
  • Use RPE instead of HR
  • Give permission and suggestions for modifications
pregnancy benefits
Pregnancy—benefits
  • Reduces gravity’s pull on baby
  • Helps prevent hyperlordosis
  • Decreases chance of overheating
  • Hydrostatic pressure helps prevent edema
pregnancy guidelines
Pregnancy—guidelines
  • Water between 78 and 84* F
  • Emphasize proper hydration
  • Follow ACOG guidelines
    • Guidelines for exercise
    • Contraindications for exercise
    • Careful evaluation
obesity benefits
Obesity—benefits
  • Reduces the effect of gravity
  • Decreases risk factors for heart disease
  • Hydrostatic pressure assist venous return
  • Easier to stick with the program
    • Cool environment
    • Comfortable
    • Relaxing
    • Beneficial
obesity guidelines
Obesity—guidelines
  • Limb speed is important to overcome buoyancy
  • Follow general exercise guidelines
  • Deep water walking is a great place to start
  • Give non-rebound options
  • Emphasize safety and form
arthritis benefits
Arthritis—benefits
  • Osteoarthritis—degenerative changes in the joints
  • Rheumatoid arthritis—chronic, destructive disease characterized by joint inflammation
  • Decrease pain
  • Increase ROM
  • Maintain joint mobility
arthritis guidelines
Arthritis—guidelines
  • Don’t exercise when joint is “hot”
  • Exercise later in the day
  • Spend twice as long on warm-up
  • Avoid hard stretches
  • Gently move every joint in every possible direction
  • Eliminate bouncing
  • Ideal water temp. is 86-95* F
low back pain benefits
Low Back Pain—benefits
  • Water decreases compression forces on the spine and other joints
  • It is easier to move in the water than on land
low back pain guidelines
Low Back Pain—guidelines
  • Emphasize proper posture
    • Neutral spine, stand tall
  • Eliminate bouncing
  • Strengthen abdominals
  • Emphasize core stability
  • Immediately stop any exercise that causes pain
  • Wear cushioned shoes
  • Minimize hip flexor work, especially kickboards
program design
Program Design
  • All general land rules and guidelines apply to aquatic exercise
    • Warm-up
    • Stretch
    • Cardio
    • Cool down
    • Stretch
  • Emphasize proper form and execution at all times
  • Use the FIT principle
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