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# Aquatic Exercise Special Populations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Aquatic Exercise & Special Populations. By Kris Hinnerichs. Where we’re going…. Hydrodynamics Aquatic Exercise Benefits of Aquatic Exercise Special Populations Program Design. Hydrodynamics. Archimedes’ Principle Specific Gravity Movement in Water Newton’s Laws

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### Aquatic Exercise & Special Populations

By Kris

Hinnerichs

• Hydrodynamics

• Aquatic Exercise

• Benefits of Aquatic Exercise

• Special Populations

• Program Design

• Archimedes’ Principle

• Specific Gravity

• Movement in Water

• Newton’s Laws

• Conservation of Momentum

• A body in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the water displaced

Application of Archimedes’ Principle

• People weight very little in water

• Most of our energy is put into moving in the water and very little is used to “carry” ourselves

• This is especially valuable for those who have difficulties moving around on land

• The ratio of weight of a body to the weight of the water it displaces.

• Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.0

• Specific gravity < 1.0 will float

• Specific gravity > 1.0 will sink

• Muscle

• Bone

• Children and the elderly tend to have less muscles and more fat

• Young adults tend to have more muscle

• Resistance related to the object’s shape and profile to the water

• Tight, narrow shapes have less form drag

• Broad, wide shapes have more form drag

• Resistance caused by water turbulence

• Directly proportional to swimming speed

• The more activity in the water, the more turbulence and wave drag

• Law of Inertia--force is needed to

• move a body at rest,

• stop a body in motion, or

• change the direction of a moving body

• Static inertia is the tendency of a body at rest to stay at rest

• Dynamic inertia is the tendency of a moving body to keep moving

• Circular patterns are more effective than linear patterns

• Back-and-forth linear movements require force to stop moving in one direction and more force to start moving in another direction

• Abrupt changes of linear motion may throw your body out of alignment, requiring more force to overcome the increased drag

• Factors that affect your workout

• Bouyancy and water depth

• Resistance

• Speed of movement

• Type of movement

AquaticExercise

• Psychosocial

• Enhance physical fitness

• Assist with weight management

• Improve motor function

• Social

• Peer-group interaction

• Normalization of inclusion

• safety

• Psychological

• Psychological growth

• Improvement of well-being and confidence

• Experience success

• Enhance self-image

• Have fun

• Independent mobility

• About 30 mill. people in the US are 65 and older

• Exercise is key for good health and independent living

• Achieve enriched quality of life

• Primary goals

• reach and maintain a level of fitness,

• Improve one’s physical condition

• Delay onset of chronic disease

• Water at least 83* F

• Less activity than that for a younger group

• Explain safety features before you begin

• Lifeguard location

• Pool layout

• Use RPE instead of HR

• Give permission and suggestions for modifications

• Reduces gravity’s pull on baby

• Helps prevent hyperlordosis

• Decreases chance of overheating

• Hydrostatic pressure helps prevent edema

• Water between 78 and 84* F

• Emphasize proper hydration

• Guidelines for exercise

• Contraindications for exercise

• Careful evaluation

• Reduces the effect of gravity

• Decreases risk factors for heart disease

• Hydrostatic pressure assist venous return

• Easier to stick with the program

• Cool environment

• Comfortable

• Relaxing

• Beneficial

• Limb speed is important to overcome buoyancy

• Deep water walking is a great place to start

• Give non-rebound options

• Emphasize safety and form

• Osteoarthritis—degenerative changes in the joints

• Rheumatoid arthritis—chronic, destructive disease characterized by joint inflammation

• Decrease pain

• Increase ROM

• Maintain joint mobility

• Don’t exercise when joint is “hot”

• Exercise later in the day

• Spend twice as long on warm-up

• Avoid hard stretches

• Gently move every joint in every possible direction

• Eliminate bouncing

• Ideal water temp. is 86-95* F

• Water decreases compression forces on the spine and other joints

• It is easier to move in the water than on land

• Emphasize proper posture

• Neutral spine, stand tall

• Eliminate bouncing

• Strengthen abdominals

• Emphasize core stability

• Immediately stop any exercise that causes pain

• Wear cushioned shoes

• Minimize hip flexor work, especially kickboards

• All general land rules and guidelines apply to aquatic exercise

• Warm-up

• Stretch

• Cardio

• Cool down

• Stretch

• Emphasize proper form and execution at all times

• Use the FIT principle