Aquatic exercise special populations
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Aquatic Exercise & Special Populations. By Kris Hinnerichs. Where we’re going…. Hydrodynamics Aquatic Exercise Benefits of Aquatic Exercise Special Populations Program Design. Hydrodynamics. Archimedes’ Principle Specific Gravity Movement in Water Newton’s Laws

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Where we re going
Where we’re going…

  • Hydrodynamics

  • Aquatic Exercise

  • Benefits of Aquatic Exercise

  • Special Populations

  • Program Design


  • Archimedes’ Principle

  • Specific Gravity

  • Movement in Water

  • Newton’s Laws

  • Conservation of Momentum

Archimedes principle
Archimedes’ Principle

  • A body in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the water displaced

Application of archimedes principle
Application of Archimedes’ Principle

  • People weight very little in water

  • Most of our energy is put into moving in the water and very little is used to “carry” ourselves

  • This is especially valuable for those who have difficulties moving around on land

Specific gravity
Specific Gravity

  • The ratio of weight of a body to the weight of the water it displaces.

Specific gravity1
Specific Gravity

  • Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.0

  • Specific gravity < 1.0 will float

    • Adipose tissue

  • Specific gravity > 1.0 will sink

    • Muscle

    • Bone

  • Children and the elderly tend to have less muscles and more fat

  • Young adults tend to have more muscle

Form drag
Form Drag

  • Resistance related to the object’s shape and profile to the water

    • Tight, narrow shapes have less form drag

    • Broad, wide shapes have more form drag

Wave drag
Wave Drag

  • Resistance caused by water turbulence

  • Directly proportional to swimming speed

  • The more activity in the water, the more turbulence and wave drag

Newton s laws
Newton’s Laws

  • Law of Inertia--force is needed to

    • move a body at rest,

    • stop a body in motion, or

    • change the direction of a moving body

  • Static inertia is the tendency of a body at rest to stay at rest

  • Dynamic inertia is the tendency of a moving body to keep moving

Conservation of momentum
Conservation of Momentum

  • Circular patterns are more effective than linear patterns

  • Back-and-forth linear movements require force to stop moving in one direction and more force to start moving in another direction

  • Abrupt changes of linear motion may throw your body out of alignment, requiring more force to overcome the increased drag

Aquatic exercise
Aquatic Exercise

  • Factors that affect your workout

    • Bouyancy and water depth

    • Resistance

    • Speed of movement

    • Type of movement

Aquatic exercise1

Benefits of aquatic exercise
Benefits of Aquatic Exercise

  • Psychosocial

    • Enhance physical fitness

    • Assist with weight management

    • Improve motor function

  • Social

    • Peer-group interaction

    • Normalization of inclusion

    • safety

Benefits of aquatic exercise1
Benefits of Aquatic Exercise

  • Psychological

    • Psychological growth

    • Improvement of well-being and confidence

    • Experience success

    • Enhance self-image

    • Have fun

    • Independent mobility

Older adults benefits
Older Adults—benefits

  • About 30 mill. people in the US are 65 and older

  • Exercise is key for good health and independent living

  • Achieve enriched quality of life

  • Primary goals

    • reach and maintain a level of fitness,

    • Improve one’s physical condition

    • Delay onset of chronic disease

Older adults guidelines
Older Adults—guidelines

  • Water at least 83* F

  • Less activity than that for a younger group

  • Explain safety features before you begin

    • Lifeguard location

    • Pool layout

  • Use RPE instead of HR

  • Give permission and suggestions for modifications

Pregnancy benefits

  • Reduces gravity’s pull on baby

  • Helps prevent hyperlordosis

  • Decreases chance of overheating

  • Hydrostatic pressure helps prevent edema

Pregnancy guidelines

  • Water between 78 and 84* F

  • Emphasize proper hydration

  • Follow ACOG guidelines

    • Guidelines for exercise

    • Contraindications for exercise

    • Careful evaluation

Obesity benefits

  • Reduces the effect of gravity

  • Decreases risk factors for heart disease

  • Hydrostatic pressure assist venous return

  • Easier to stick with the program

    • Cool environment

    • Comfortable

    • Relaxing

    • Beneficial

Obesity guidelines

  • Limb speed is important to overcome buoyancy

  • Follow general exercise guidelines

  • Deep water walking is a great place to start

  • Give non-rebound options

  • Emphasize safety and form

Arthritis benefits

  • Osteoarthritis—degenerative changes in the joints

  • Rheumatoid arthritis—chronic, destructive disease characterized by joint inflammation

  • Decrease pain

  • Increase ROM

  • Maintain joint mobility

Arthritis guidelines

  • Don’t exercise when joint is “hot”

  • Exercise later in the day

  • Spend twice as long on warm-up

  • Avoid hard stretches

  • Gently move every joint in every possible direction

  • Eliminate bouncing

  • Ideal water temp. is 86-95* F

Low back pain benefits
Low Back Pain—benefits

  • Water decreases compression forces on the spine and other joints

  • It is easier to move in the water than on land

Low back pain guidelines
Low Back Pain—guidelines

  • Emphasize proper posture

    • Neutral spine, stand tall

  • Eliminate bouncing

  • Strengthen abdominals

  • Emphasize core stability

  • Immediately stop any exercise that causes pain

  • Wear cushioned shoes

  • Minimize hip flexor work, especially kickboards

Program design
Program Design

  • All general land rules and guidelines apply to aquatic exercise

    • Warm-up

    • Stretch

    • Cardio

    • Cool down

    • Stretch

  • Emphasize proper form and execution at all times

  • Use the FIT principle