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Measures of Acculturation . Nazleen Bharmal, MD, PhD RCMAR/CHIME and Project EXPORT Methods Seminar August 2013. Acculturation . Process by which individuals exposed regularly to another culture adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of the foreign culture

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Measures of Acculturation

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Measures of Acculturation

Nazleen Bharmal, MD, PhD

RCMAR/CHIME and Project EXPORT Methods Seminar

August 2013


Acculturation

  • Process by which individuals exposed regularly to another culture adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of the foreign culture

  • Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional

  • Health Outcomes: depression, obesity, DM, CVD, cancer

  • Health impact depends on how acculturation is measured


Measures of Acculturation

  • Acculturation Scales:

    • Cultural practices, values, identification

    • Hispanics: ARSMA, SASH, BAS

    • Asians: SL-ASIA

  • Proxy Measures:

    • Language proficiency

    • Country of nativity

    • Temporal: length of residence, age at immigration


California Asian Indian Tobacco Survey

  • Telephone survey of 3228 Asian Indian adults

  • RR=81% (adult), 54% (house x adult)

  • Conducted in several South Asian languages


Acculturation Domains


Temporal Measures

  • Duration of residence in the U.S.

  • Percentage of time in the U.S.

  • Age at immigration


Relationship Between Ethnic Identity and Number of Years in the U.S.

F-test p-value<0.001; r = 0.32


Associations of acculturation items and number of years in the US


Evaluation of Dimensionality of Acculturation Items


Evaluation of Dimensionality of Acculturation Items

  • Exploratory Factor Analysis: criteria for determining number of factors

    • PCA eigenvalues > 1

    • Scree test plot: graphical display of components and corresponding eigenvalues

    • Parallel analysis: based on a Monte Carol simulation, compares observed eigenvalues with uncorrelated normal variables


EFA Examples


Factor Rotation

  • Rotate plausible number of factors

    • Look for simple structure

    • Orthogonal v. Oblique (permits factor correlation)

  • STATA Command:

    estat common

    estat structure

    rotate, promax factors (#)

    griegan, yline (1)

    estatsmc


Promax obliquely rotated 2-factor solution

Factor 1 – Engagement in Indian cultural behaviors; Factor 2 – Social behaviors in US

Bold – factor loading > 0.40


Confirmatory Factor Analysis

  • Specify specific model and evaluate fit

  • Model fit evaluation:

    • Chi-squared tests

    • Goodness of fit index

    • RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation)

    • CFI (comparative fit index – relative to null)


Parameter estimates for CFA model


Confirmatory Factor Analysis

  • 1-Factor Model:

    • RMSEA (0-1) = 0.10

    • CFI (0-1) = 0.65

  • 2-Factor Model:

    • RMSEA = 0.08

    • CFI = 0.79

  • 2-Factor Model with correlated residuals:

    • RMSEA = 0.07

    • CFI = 0.89

RMSEA: Smaller values indicate better model fit ≤ 0.06

CFI: Larger values indicate better model fit ≥ 0.90


Scoring of Acculturation scale

  • Transformed each of items to have a 0-100 possible range

    • e.g., frequency of native language had 5 response categories (1-5) that became: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100

  • Higher score means greater level of acculturation to U.S.


Acculturation Scale Characteristics

  • 11-items averaged together

  • Mean = 39 (range: 0-100; SD 17)

  • Skewness = 0.45, Kurtosis = 3.05

  • Internal consistency reliability = 0.73

  • Product-moment correlations with:

    • r = 0.37 with years lived in the US

    • r =0.45 with percentage of lifetime in the US

    • r = -0.34 with age at immigration


Mean acculturation score by yrs in U.S. among immigrants


Acknowledgements

  • Ron Hays – for methods mentoring

  • William McCarthy – for content mentoring

  • NRSA, AHA, STAR fellowships

  • Validity of Temporal Measures as Proxies for Measuring Acculturation in Asian Indian Survey Respondents. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013


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