Measures of acculturation
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Measures of Acculturation . Nazleen Bharmal, MD, PhD RCMAR/CHIME and Project EXPORT Methods Seminar August 2013. Acculturation . Process by which individuals exposed regularly to another culture adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of the foreign culture

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Measures of Acculturation

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Measures of acculturation

Measures of Acculturation

Nazleen Bharmal, MD, PhD

RCMAR/CHIME and Project EXPORT Methods Seminar

August 2013


Acculturation

Acculturation

  • Process by which individuals exposed regularly to another culture adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of the foreign culture

  • Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional

  • Health Outcomes: depression, obesity, DM, CVD, cancer

  • Health impact depends on how acculturation is measured


Measures of acculturation1

Measures of Acculturation

  • Acculturation Scales:

    • Cultural practices, values, identification

    • Hispanics: ARSMA, SASH, BAS

    • Asians: SL-ASIA

  • Proxy Measures:

    • Language proficiency

    • Country of nativity

    • Temporal: length of residence, age at immigration


California asian indian tobacco survey

California Asian Indian Tobacco Survey

  • Telephone survey of 3228 Asian Indian adults

  • RR=81% (adult), 54% (house x adult)

  • Conducted in several South Asian languages


Acculturation domains

Acculturation Domains


Temporal measures

Temporal Measures

  • Duration of residence in the U.S.

  • Percentage of time in the U.S.

  • Age at immigration


Relationship between ethnic identity and number of years in the u s

Relationship Between Ethnic Identity and Number of Years in the U.S.

F-test p-value<0.001; r = 0.32


Associations of acculturation items and number of years in the us

Associations of acculturation items and number of years in the US


Evaluation of dimensionality of acculturation items

Evaluation of Dimensionality of Acculturation Items


Evaluation of dimensionality of acculturation items1

Evaluation of Dimensionality of Acculturation Items

  • Exploratory Factor Analysis: criteria for determining number of factors

    • PCA eigenvalues > 1

    • Scree test plot: graphical display of components and corresponding eigenvalues

    • Parallel analysis: based on a Monte Carol simulation, compares observed eigenvalues with uncorrelated normal variables


Efa examples

EFA Examples


Factor rotation

Factor Rotation

  • Rotate plausible number of factors

    • Look for simple structure

    • Orthogonal v. Oblique (permits factor correlation)

  • STATA Command:

    estat common

    estat structure

    rotate, promax factors (#)

    griegan, yline (1)

    estatsmc


Promax obliquely rotated 2 factor solution

Promax obliquely rotated 2-factor solution

Factor 1 – Engagement in Indian cultural behaviors; Factor 2 – Social behaviors in US

Bold – factor loading > 0.40


Confirmatory factor analysis

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

  • Specify specific model and evaluate fit

  • Model fit evaluation:

    • Chi-squared tests

    • Goodness of fit index

    • RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation)

    • CFI (comparative fit index – relative to null)


Parameter estimates for cfa model

Parameter estimates for CFA model


Confirmatory factor analysis1

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

  • 1-Factor Model:

    • RMSEA (0-1) = 0.10

    • CFI (0-1) = 0.65

  • 2-Factor Model:

    • RMSEA = 0.08

    • CFI = 0.79

  • 2-Factor Model with correlated residuals:

    • RMSEA = 0.07

    • CFI = 0.89

RMSEA: Smaller values indicate better model fit ≤ 0.06

CFI: Larger values indicate better model fit ≥ 0.90


Scoring of acculturation scale

Scoring of Acculturation scale

  • Transformed each of items to have a 0-100 possible range

    • e.g., frequency of native language had 5 response categories (1-5) that became: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100

  • Higher score means greater level of acculturation to U.S.


Acculturation scale characteristics

Acculturation Scale Characteristics

  • 11-items averaged together

  • Mean = 39 (range: 0-100; SD 17)

  • Skewness = 0.45, Kurtosis = 3.05

  • Internal consistency reliability = 0.73

  • Product-moment correlations with:

    • r = 0.37 with years lived in the US

    • r =0.45 with percentage of lifetime in the US

    • r = -0.34 with age at immigration


Mean acculturation score by yrs in u s among immigrants

Mean acculturation score by yrs in U.S. among immigrants


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Ron Hays – for methods mentoring

  • William McCarthy – for content mentoring

  • NRSA, AHA, STAR fellowships

  • Validity of Temporal Measures as Proxies for Measuring Acculturation in Asian Indian Survey Respondents. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013


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