Cells:  The Basic Units of Life

Cells: The Basic Units of Life PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cells: The Basic Units of Life

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1. Cells: The Basic Units of Life

2. Some Generalizations cell theory cell size surface area to volume ratio

4. Some Generalizations plasma membrane selectively permeable barrier communication homeostasis 2 cell types prokaryotic eukaryotic

5. Prokaryotic Cells lack a nucleus lack membrane-bound organelles typically unicellular bacteria

6. Prokaryotic Cell Structures cell membrane enclosed by cell wall capsule pili nucleoid region ribosomes flagella

9. Eukaryotic Cells “true seed” membrane bound nucleus membrane-bound organelles larger 10x larger on average internal cytoskeleton protists, fungi, plants, animals

10. Eukaryotic Cell Structure organelles compartmentalize functions defined by chemical reactions

15. Nucleus double membrane bound nuclear pores portions continuous with ER chromatin nucleolus nucleoplasm

18. Ribosomes provides site for protein synthesis cytoplasmic surface of ER inside mitochondria and chloroplasts

19. Endomembrane System series of continuous and discontinuous membranes that communicate with one another via vesicles ER (rough and smooth) golgi apparatus vesicles lysosomes nuclear membrane plasma membrane

20. Endoplasmic Reticulum interconnected flattened sacs cisternae rough ER (RER) studded with ribosomes segregates proteins destined to be incorporated into membranes, moved to another organelle, or exocytosed may be chemically modified

21. Endoplasmic Reticulum smooth ER (SER) protein modification steroid synthesis detoxification

24. Golgi Apparatus stacks of flattened sacs, not interconnected cisternae receives products from ER modifies products sorts and exports to various locations

27. Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes hydrolysis of macromolecules autophagy apoptosis

29. Mitochondria conversion of chemical energy of various biomolecules into ATP double membrane bound outer membrane intermembrane space inner membrane forms cristae matrix

30. Mitochondria possess their own DNA code for proteins used internally

33. Chloroplasts one of a group of organelles called plastids conversion of light energy into chemical energy

34. Chloroplasts double membrane bound outer membrane inner membrane stroma thylakoid membranes

36. Peroxisomes breakdown of fatty acids and amino acid metabolism byproduct is hydrogen peroxide degraded by catalase

38. Vacuoles storage sites central vacuole in plants food vacuole contractile vacuole

40. Cytoskeleton cell shape and support cell movement transport of materials inside cell microfilaments microtubules intermediate filaments

44. Cilia and Flagella cilia vs. flagella same in structure differ in number and length anchored by basal bodies same structurally as centriole

47. Extracellular Structures cell wall support barrier extracellular matrix holds cells together contributes to tissues’ physical properties

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