3 major domains of life include 2 different cell types
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Mnemonic device. 3 Major Domains of Life include 2 Different Cell Types. D id D omain K ing K ingdom P hillip P hylum (phyla) C ome C lass O ver O rder F rom F amily G reece G enus (genera) S inging? S pecies. Scientific name.

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3 Major Domains of Life include 2 Different Cell Types

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3 major domains of life include 2 different cell types

Mnemonic device

3 Major Domains of Life include2 Different Cell Types

DidDomain

King Kingdom

Phillip Phylum (phyla)

Come Class

Over Order

FromFamily

Greece Genus (genera)

Singing? Species

Scientific

name

Homo sapiens


3 major domains of life include 2 different cell types

3 Domains of Life

2 Types of Cells

Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic


3 major domains of life archae bacteria eukaryota 2 cell types prokaryotic eukaryotic

3 Major Domains of Life: Archae, Bacteria, Eukaryota2 Cell Types: Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic CellsEukaryotic Cells

  • Lack nuclei & most other organelles-Nuclei & other organelles

  • DNA is concentrated in nucleoid-Appear after prokaryotes

  • 1st cells in fossil record-Larger cells (10-100 um)

  • Small cells (1 – 10 micrometers)-Complex cellular organization

  • Simple cellular organization -Mitosis

  • Binary Fission (no mitosis)-Eukarya (Eukaryota)

  • Archae (or Archaebacteria)-Kingdoms: Protista

    Bacteria (or Eubacteria) Fungi

    Plant

    Animal


Prokaryotic cells vs eukaryotic cells

Prokaryotic Cellsvs. Eukaryotic Cells

Archae & Bacteria

(Eukarya)


Prokaryotic cells in domain archae

Prokaryotic Cells in Domain Archae

  • The scientific community was shocked in the late 1970s by the discovery of an entirely new group of organisms -- the Archae

  • These “bacteria" lived at high temperatures or produced methane clustered together as a group well away from the usual bacteria and the eukaryotes.

  • Because of this vast difference in genetic makeup, people proposed that life be divided into three domains: Eukaryota, Eubacteria, and Archae

  • It is true that most archaeans don't look that different from bacteria under the microscope. However, biochemically and genetically, they are as different from bacteria as you are.


Domain archae

Domain Archae

  • Archaeans include inhabitants of some of the most extreme environments on the planet.

  • Some live near rift vents in the deep sea at temperatures well over 100 degrees Centigrade.

  • Others live in hot springs or in extremely alkaline or acid waters.

  • They have been found thriving inside the digestive tracts of cows, termites, and marine life where they produce methane.

  • They live in the anoxic muds of marshes and at the bottom of the ocean, and even thrive in petroleum deposits deep underground.


Domain bacteria

Domain Bacteria

  • Bacteria are among the earliest forms of life that appeared on Earth billions of years ago.

  • Scientists think that they helped shape and change the young planet's environment, eventually creating atmospheric oxygen that enabled other, more complex life forms to develop

  • There are thousands of species of bacteria, but all of them are basically one of three different shapes. Some  are rod- or stick-shaped and called bacilli(buh-sill-eye).

  • Others are shaped like little balls and called cocci(cox-eye).

  • Others still are helical or spiral in shape, like the Borrelia pictured at the top of this page.

  • Some bacterial cells exist as individuals while others cluster together to form pairs, chains, squares or other groupings.


Bacterial structure

Bacterial Structure

  • Basic structure includes a loop of DNA, ribosomes, a plasma membrane, a cell wall, sometimes a capsule.

  • Some bacteria move about using a flagellum.

  • Pili are used for attachment.


Domain eukaryota kingdom protista

Domain EukaryotaKingdom Protista

Diatoms

  • Protists are organisms that are classified into the kingdom Protista.  The protists form a group of organisms that really do not fit into any other kingdom

  • All protists are eukaryotic (cells with

    nuclei). 

  • All protists live in moist environments.

  • Protists can be unicellular or multicellular. 

  • Protists can be microscopic or can be over 100 meters (300 feet) long. 

  • Some protists are heterotrophs, while others are autotrophs.

  • Protists are grouped into three subcategories: animal-like protists, fungus-like protists, and plant-like protists.

Amoeba

Paramecium


Domain eukaryota kingdom protista1

Domain EukaryotaKingdom Protista

Plasmodium

(Causes malaria)

Brown Kelp (multicellular)

Causes dysentery (extreme diarrhea)


Multicellularity

Multicellularity

  • Multicellularity has been independently attained in 3 groups of protists.

    • Brown algae (Phylum Phaeophyta)

    • Red algae (Phylum Rhodophyta)

    • Green algae (Phylum Chlorophyta)


Red algae pyrrophyta

Red Algae: Pyrrophyta


Domain eukaryota kingdom fungi

Domain EukaryotaKingdom Fungi

  • Some Fungi break down dead organic material (decomposers) and thus continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems.

  • Most plants could not grow without the symbiotic fungi, or mycorrhizae, that inhabit their roots and supply essential nutrients.

  • Other fungi provide numerous drugs (such as penicillin and other antibiotics), foods like mushrooms, truffles and morels, and the bubbles (through anaerobic fermentation) in bread, champagne, beer.

  • Fungi also cause a number of animal diseases: in humans, ringworm, athlete's foot, and STD’s

  • Plant diseases caused by fungi include: rusts, smuts, and leaf, root, and stem rots, and may cause severe damage to crops.

  • A number of fungi, in particular yeasts, are important "model organisms" for studying problems in genetics and molecular biology.

Budding yeast cell


Traits of fungi

Traits of Fungi

Most are multicellular

Some like yeasts are unicellular

All are heterotrophic


Examples of fungi

Examples of Fungi

Bread Mold


Examples of fungus

Examples of Fungus

Moldy Fruit


Examples of fungus1

Examples of Fungus

Tree Fungus


Kinds of fungi

Kinds of Fungi

Club Fungi - have hyphae that form branches underground. They have club shaped parts that produce spores.


Kinds of fungi1

Kinds of Fungi

Sac Fungi – produce spores in sac-like structures.


Helpful fungi

Helpful Fungi

Food – mushrooms

Used to make cheese – Blue Cheese

Used to make bread rise

Used to make soy sauce from soy beans

Used to break down materials and recycle wastes and dead organisms

Used to make certain drugs (ex. Penicillin)


Mushrooms

Mushrooms


Blue cheese

Blue Cheese


Soy sauce

Soy Sauce


Decaying tree

Decaying Tree


Penicillin

Penicillin


Harmful fungus

Harmful Fungus

Cause food spoilage

Cause plant disease such as rusts, Dutch Elm Disease, and mildew

Cause Human diseases such as Ring Worm, Athlete’s Foot, Thrush, lung Infections, and Yeast Infections

Destroy leather, fabrics, plastics, etc.


Food spoilage

Food Spoilage


Dutch elm disease

Dutch Elm Disease


Ringworm

Ringworm


Athlete s foot

Athlete’s Foot


Thrush

Thrush


Fungus destroying leather

Fungus Destroying Leather


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