Ch 15, DIABETES MELLITUS. DIABETES . Group 7; Section 302. Bernard Boateng Latoya Newby Linda Lawrence Nehemiah Dorce Disease State: Diabetes Lenz Ch. 12 11/15/11. DIABETES Overview. Diabetes was listed as Sixth leading cause of death in the United states in 2002
Associated with HLA types
Family history of obesity not common
Age at onset < 30yrs
Defect in insulin
Obesity Common (60-90%)
Age at onset > 40yrs
MNT & Insulin
HDL-C < 35mg/dl
Triglyceride > 250 mg/dl
Prevent the onset of disease and increase work capacity
Large muscle activities
moderate to vigorous
At least 30 minutes
most days of the week
All major muscle groups
Life style Activities
Walking the dog
house duties etc.
Improve insulin sensitivity
Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
Reduce body weight
Large muscle activities
very low to moderate
5-10 min initially, 20-60 min
2-4 times per week
( for initial 2 to 8 weeks )
All major muscle groups
1 set 15-20 repetitions, 2 to 3 times per week
rest at least 48 hrs between session.
Four Goals of American Diabetes Association (ADA)
Group 10: Joseph Bishay, Chantel Grubbs, Meranda Maley, Shanae Perry, Jasmine Stanton
PREVELANCE & HEALTH RISKS
Pathophysiology of Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a PREVENTABLE disease!
Prevention and Treatment
General physical activity for adults is 30 minutes daily and for children 60 minutes daily.
Physical Activity and Osteoporosis
Doing activities that impose an increased load to the bones of the upper body will only affect the bones of the lower body.
Principles about the Osteogenic Effect
A successful, “extreme” training can have positive and negative outcomes.
Bone Health & Overtraining in Women
Pharmacy Practice Application
Project ImPACT: Osteoporosis
Project ImPACT: Results
November 28, 2011
Prevalence of OA in the United States is estimated to be at 21 million Americans or 12% of the population.
Osteoarthritis can occur in any joint, but it is most commonly diagnosed in the knees, hips, hands, and spine.
Jalecia Green JoshlynnMclellan
The topic of chronic lung disease can include many different pulmonary disorders such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic rhinitis, cystic fibrosis, and drug-induced pulmonary diseases.
We will focus on asthma and COPD as these are two of the most common chronic lung diseases.
Asthma is characterized by reversible airflow obstruction that can occur at any time in an individual, but most patients are diagnosed with asthma by age 5. Genetic studies of patients with asthma strongly suggest there is a genetic predisposition. An individual who has a parent with asthma is three to six times more likely to develop asthma than a person who does not have a parent with asthma.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder and is caused by a complex interaction between inflammatory cells and mediators. Cellular elements involved in the inflammatory process include mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, epithelial cells, and others. In persons susceptible to asthma, the inflammatory process usually occurs as a result of exposure to triggers or events that begin the process. These triggers are commonly an allergy to certain environmental elements or chemicals. After exposure to a trigger, an asthma attack can occur as a result of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity of the bronchial smooth muscles, which causes variable degrees of airway obstruction.
COPD refers to a group of pulmonary diseases, including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and in some cases asthma, that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems.
COPD progresses with time and is characterized by limited airflow that is not completely reversible. Like asthma, inflammation plays a significant role in the progression of COPD. An inflammatory response in the lungs can occur in patients with COPD as a result of noxious particles or gases. The two most common pulmonary disorders comprising COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Many of the risk factors associated with asthma and the development of COPD are related to allergens and exposure to cigarette smoke. Therefore, disease prevention strategies should focus on avoiding environmental allergens and chemicals, as well as smoking abstinence. In addition, it is important for patients with asthma and COPD to be compliant with their prescribed medications that treat their disease.
Exercise and physical activity in certain environments have been shown to be risks for asthma and lead to exercise-induced asthma (EIA) or exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Many studies show that 70 to 90% of patients with asthma experience EIA. The symptoms of EIA can include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, chest discomfort, or a combination that lasts up to 30 minutes after exercise has stopped.
Patients should become familiar with the Borg RPE scale as a means of measuring their exercise intensity because it can help decrease fears of difficulty in breathing while exercising, especially when it is combined with an optimal medication regimen and close measurements of peak flow using a peak flow meter.
Patients with COPD are encouraged to participate in physical activity as a means of maintaining and enhancing their quality of life, as well as for preventing other diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity programs for patients with COPD should be highly individualized and flexible to adjust to clinical status changes. Medical condition changes should warrant a reassessment of physical activity program and goals.
2. Which of the following is not an Environmental Risk Factor Leading to Asthma and COPD?
All of the above are Environmental Risk Factors Leading to Asthma and COPD
Name two foods that have particularly high amounts of metabisulfites.
Beer, wine dried fruit, and open salad bars have particularly high amounts of metabisulfites.
Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of COPD
There are over 25,000 deaths each year from COPD
Total deaths from COPD are projected to increase by more than 30% in the next ten years
An estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma, with 250,000 annual deaths attributed to the disease
The greatest rise in asthma rates was among black children (almost a 50% increase from 2001 to 2009)
More than 80% of asthma deaths can be prevented with proper asthma education