Components of the Immune System
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Components of the Immune System. Learn on your own: Spleen structure and function Mast cells and NK cells. Self-Test Questions: A1: allC1: all A2: 1 - 4 C2: none A3: 1 - 3, 5 C3: all A4: 1, 2, 4 D1: both A5: all D2: 2 & 3 A6: bothD3: none B1: none B2: 1, 2, 4, 5.

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Components of the Immune System

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Components of the Immune System

Learn on your own:

Spleen structure and function

Mast cells and NK cells

Self-Test Questions:

A1: allC1: all

A2: 1 - 4 C2: none

A3: 1 - 3, 5 C3: all

A4: 1, 2, 4 D1: both

A5: all D2: 2 & 3

A6: bothD3: none

B1: none

B2: 1, 2, 4, 5

Cells and Organs


= Formation of blood cells

Stem cells



(less differentiated)

progenitor cells

(more differentiated

vs blast cells

vs mature (naïve) cells

vs effector cells

Site of hematopoiesis

changes during development

Cells and Organs

Why is apoptosis (programmed cell death) also Important?

-- a normal and essential process

Apoptosis vs

Necrosis (cell lysis)

Occurs during B- & T-cell


Also an important

killing mechanism

Prevents triggering of



Cells and Organs

How can different cells be identified and separated?

With Immunofluorescence

CD antigens can be stained

with antibodies tagged

with fluorescent molecules

Flow cytometry and “fluorescence activated cell sorting” (FACS) can be used to count, sort and separate cell types

Cells possess


CD antigens

See appendix 5

Cells and Organs

  • What are the 2 major categories of immune cells?

  • 1- Lymphoid cells

  • -- B- & T- cells

  • -- NK cells

    • 2- Myeloid cells

    • -- Granulocytes

    • -- Monocytes, macrophages, DC

  • Lymphoid cells

  • B-cells-- naïve carry B-cell receptor (membrane Ab)

  • activated plasma cells secrete Ab

  • T-cells -- Carry T-cell receptor (TCR)

  • Tc cells are MHC-I restricted

  • activated become CTLs

  • TH cells are MHC-II restricted

  • activated secrete cytokines (TH1 vs TH2)

Cells and Organs

Myeloid cells

A. Granulocytes

-- degranulation


-- multilobed

-- rapid response


-- bilobed

-- eukaryotic parasites


-- densely granular

-- eukaryotic parasites

-- type I hypersensitivities

Neutrophil chase

Cells and Organs

Granulocyte abnormalities can

underlie disorders


-- too many eosinophils



Parasitic infections


-- too few neutrophils





Cells and Organs

B. Other myeloid cells


Develop from monocytes (in blood)

-- within tissues

Go by various names; e.g.:

-- Kumpfer cells, Langerhans cells, microglial cells, etc

-- tissue type specific

How do macrophages kill pathogens?

-- external & internal mechanisms

-- enzymes and reactive molecules

Act as “Professional-APCs”

-- only to memory T-cells

Cells and Organs

Dendritic Cells

Functions: antigen…




Antigen + T-cell interaction…

 “licensed DC”

Only licensed DC can

activate naïve T-cells

Take on specialized functions

-- determined by cytokines

-- generate different types of T-cells

Cells and Organs

What are the organs of the

immune system?

Primary lymphoid organs

(naïve immune cell development)

Bone marrow


Secondary lymphoid organs

(immune cell activation)

The “Nude Mouse”

Cells and Organs

Structure and function of

2O lymphoid tissues


-- basic organizational unit

-- may be within specialized organ

2O tissues carry out

surveillance of systems

-- respiratory : tonsils & MALT

-- digestive : GALT

-- circulatory : spleen

-- lymphatic : lymph nodes

-- skin : SALT

What happens in these tissues

AG presentation

cell : cell interactions

cell activation

Cells and Organs

Immune Surveillance

Circulation of cells

and Interstitial fluid

-- antigens / pathogens

-- immune cells

Cell extravasation

-- Chemokines

-- post-venous capillaries

-- receptors

-- adhesion proteins


Leukocyte Homing

Cells and Organs

Structure and function of lymph nodes

Lymphatic vessels




Follicles & Germinal centers

1O vs 2O

B-cell activation


AG-presentation &

T-Cell activation


Plasma cell


Cells and Organs


Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)

Widely distributed

-- More about MALT in Chapter 12

e.g., Peyer’s patches (GALT)

-- Protects Intestinal track

-- M-cells

Cells and Organs

Recent findings show effect of HIV on GALT

Destruction of T-cells in gut

Leads to destruction of GALT

Ileum of:

Uninfectected person HIV infected person


Image by Daniel Douek from Science (2005) 307: 1395

Cells and Organs

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