Components of the Immune System
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Components of the Immune System. Learn on your own: Spleen structure and function Mast cells and NK cells. Self-Test Questions: A1: allC1: all A2: 1 - 4 C2: none A3: 1 - 3, 5 C3: all A4: 1, 2, 4 D1: both A5: all D2: 2 & 3 A6: bothD3: none B1: none B2: 1, 2, 4, 5.

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Components of the Immune System

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Cells and organs 1176837

Components of the Immune System

Learn on your own:

Spleen structure and function

Mast cells and NK cells

Self-Test Questions:

A1: allC1: all

A2: 1 - 4 C2: none

A3: 1 - 3, 5 C3: all

A4: 1, 2, 4 D1: both

A5: all D2: 2 & 3

A6: bothD3: none

B1: none

B2: 1, 2, 4, 5

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“Hematopoiesis”

= Formation of blood cells

Stem cells

self-renewing

multipotent

(less differentiated)

progenitor cells

(more differentiated

vs blast cells

vs mature (naïve) cells

vs effector cells

Site of hematopoiesis

changes during development

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Why is apoptosis (programmed cell death) also Important?

-- a normal and essential process

Apoptosis vs

Necrosis (cell lysis)

Occurs during B- & T-cell

development

Also an important

killing mechanism

Prevents triggering of

inflammation

Apoptosis

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How can different cells be identified and separated?

With Immunofluorescence

CD antigens can be stained

with antibodies tagged

with fluorescent molecules

Flow cytometry and “fluorescence activated cell sorting” (FACS) can be used to count, sort and separate cell types

Cells possess

different

CD antigens

See appendix 5

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  • What are the 2 major categories of immune cells?

  • 1- Lymphoid cells

  • -- B- & T- cells

  • -- NK cells

    • 2- Myeloid cells

    • -- Granulocytes

    • -- Monocytes, macrophages, DC

  • Lymphoid cells

  • B-cells-- naïve carry B-cell receptor (membrane Ab)

  • activated plasma cells secrete Ab

  • T-cells -- Carry T-cell receptor (TCR)

  • Tc cells are MHC-I restricted

  • activated become CTLs

  • TH cells are MHC-II restricted

  • activated secrete cytokines (TH1 vs TH2)

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Myeloid cells

A. Granulocytes

-- degranulation

Neutrophils

-- multilobed

-- rapid response

Eosinophils

-- bilobed

-- eukaryotic parasites

Basophils

-- densely granular

-- eukaryotic parasites

-- type I hypersensitivities

Neutrophil chase

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Granulocyte abnormalities can

underlie disorders

Eosinophilia

-- too many eosinophils

Causes

Allergies

Parasitic infections

Neutropenia

-- too few neutrophils

Causes

Leukemia

Congenital

Drug-induced

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B. Other myeloid cells

Macrophages

Develop from monocytes (in blood)

-- within tissues

Go by various names; e.g.:

-- Kumpfer cells, Langerhans cells, microglial cells, etc

-- tissue type specific

How do macrophages kill pathogens?

-- external & internal mechanisms

-- enzymes and reactive molecules

Act as “Professional-APCs”

-- only to memory T-cells

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Dendritic Cells

Functions: antigen…

Capture

Processing

Presentation

Antigen + T-cell interaction…

 “licensed DC”

Only licensed DC can

activate naïve T-cells

Take on specialized functions

-- determined by cytokines

-- generate different types of T-cells

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What are the organs of the

immune system?

Primary lymphoid organs

(naïve immune cell development)

Bone marrow

Thymus

Secondary lymphoid organs

(immune cell activation)

The “Nude Mouse”

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Structure and function of

2O lymphoid tissues

“Follicle”

-- basic organizational unit

-- may be within specialized organ

2O tissues carry out

surveillance of systems

-- respiratory : tonsils & MALT

-- digestive : GALT

-- circulatory : spleen

-- lymphatic : lymph nodes

-- skin : SALT

What happens in these tissues

AG presentation

cell : cell interactions

cell activation

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Immune Surveillance

Circulation of cells

and Interstitial fluid

-- antigens / pathogens

-- immune cells

Cell extravasation

-- Chemokines

-- post-venous capillaries

-- receptors

-- adhesion proteins

LeukocyteRolling

Leukocyte Homing

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Structure and function of lymph nodes

Lymphatic vessels

afferent

efferent

Cortex

Follicles & Germinal centers

1O vs 2O

B-cell activation

Paracortex

AG-presentation &

T-Cell activation

Medulla

Plasma cell

accumulation

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Mucosal-Associated

Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)

Widely distributed

-- More about MALT in Chapter 12

e.g., Peyer’s patches (GALT)

-- Protects Intestinal track

-- M-cells

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Recent findings show effect of HIV on GALT

Destruction of T-cells in gut

Leads to destruction of GALT

Ileum of:

Uninfectected person HIV infected person

GALT

Image by Daniel Douek from Science (2005) 307: 1395

Cells and Organs


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