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Title

“When freezing cold is not cold enough - new forms of matter close to absolute zero temperature”

Wolfgang Ketterle

Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyMIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms

9/2/09Meridian Lecture

Space Telescope Science Institute

Baltimore

What is temperature

What is temperature?

A measure of energy

One form of energy is motion(kinetic energy).

Cold particles move slowly

Hot particlesare fast

What is temperature

Zero degree Kelvin(-273 degrees Celsius, -460 degrees Fahrenheit) is the zero point for energy

The highest temperature is infinite

(In principle it is possible for particles to have arbitrarily high kinetic energies –until they become so heavy (due to E=mc2) that they from a black hole – at the Planck temperature of 1032 K)

How cold is interstellar space?

3 K

Nanokelvin temperatures

How cold is itin our laboratories?

Nanokelvin:A billion timescolder than interstellar

space

Nanokelvin temperatures

Why can you makenew discoveriesat cold temperatures?

Atom slow down

They slow down

600 mph (300 m/sec)

1 cm/sec

What happens to atomsat low temperatures?

They march in lockstep

Molecule of the year

Matter made of waves!

Why do photons not Bose condense

What is Bose Einstein Condensation?

Population per energy state

Bose-Einstein distribution

T=Tc

Energy

Why do photons not Bose condense

T<Tc

Condensate!

What is Bose Einstein Condensation?

Population per energy state

Bose-Einstein distribution

Energy

Why do photons not Bose condense

What is Bose Einstein Condensation?

T<Tc

Condensate!

Population per energy state

Bose-Einstein distribution

Energy

Laser beam and light bulb

Photons/atoms are one big wave

Photons/atoms moving randomly

Ordinary light

Laser light

Bose/Einstein

* 1925

BE statistics and black body law

Gases (Atoms and Molecules)

Black-Body Radiation

“Photons”

Max Planck

Hot atoms

Cold atoms: 10 – 100 K

Fluorescence

Chu, Cohen-Tannoudji, Phillips, Pritchard, Ashkin, Lethokov, Hänsch, Schawlow, Wineland …

The concepts

Evaporative cooling

WK and Dark SPOT

Sodium laser cooling experiment (1992)

Family tree

I.I. Rabi

PhD

Norman Ramsey

PhD

Dan Kleppner

PhD

PhD

PhD

Under-

graduate

Dave Pritchard

Postdoc

RandyHulet

Bill Phillips

Postdoc

PhD

Eric Cornell

Wolfgang Ketterle

Carl Wieman

- Key factors for success:
- Funding
- Technical infrastructure
- Excellent collaborators
- Tradition and mentors

Probing BEC

How do we show that the Bose-Einstein condensate has very low energy?

Magnetic trap setup

- The condensate
- a puff of gas
- 100,000 thinner than air
- size comparable to the
- thickness of a hair
- magnetically suspended in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber

Ballistic expansion: direct information about velocity distribution

Absorption image: shadow of atoms

CCD

Ballistic expansion: direct information about velocity distribution

BEC B&W AVI

The shadow of a cloud of bosonsas the temperature is decreased

(Ballistic expansion for a fixed time-of-flight)

Temperature is linearly related to the rf frequency which controls the evaporation

Hour distribution

Distribution of the times when data images were takenduring one year between 2/98-1/99

- Key factors for success:
- Some funding
- Technical infrastructure
- Excellent collaborators
- Tradition and mentors

- Key factors for success:
- Some funding
- Technical infrastructure
- Excellent collaborators
- Tradition and mentors
- Physical endurance

Molecule of the year

How can you prove that atoms march in lockstep?

Atoms are one single waveAtoms are coherent

One laser beam on a white wall

Light shows wave properties

One laser beam on a white wall

Fringe pattern:

Bright-dark-bright-dark

Light shows wave properties

Cutting condensates

Two condensates ...

Interference pattern

Interference of two Bose-Einstein condensates

Andrews, Townsend, Miesner, Durfee, Kurn, Ketterle, Science 275, 589 (1997)

How do we show that the gas is superfluid?

Velocity profile

Rigid body:

Vortices in Nature

Vortices in nature

Spinning a Bose-Einstein condensate

The rotating bucket experiment with a superfluid gas

100,000 thinner than air

Rotating

green laser beams

Two-component vortexBoulder, 1999Single-component vorticesParis, 1999 Boulder, 2000 MIT 2001 Oxford 2001

J. Abo-Shaeer, C. Raman, J.M. Vogels,

W.Ketterle, Science, 4/20/2001

BEC on a microchip

Loading sodium BECs into atom chipswith optical tweezers

44 cm

Atom chip with waveguides

BECproduction

BECarrival

T.L.Gustavson, A.P.Chikkatur, A.E.Leanhardt, A.Görlitz, S.Gupta, D.E.Pritchard, W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

Two condensates

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, D. E. Pritchard, M. Vengalattore, and M. Prentiss:Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).

Two condensates

Atom interferometry:

Matter wave sensors

The goal:

Use ultracold atoms to sense

Rotation Navigation

Gravitation Geological exploration

Can electrons form a Bose-Einstein condensateand become superfluid (superconducting)?

- Two kinds of particles
- Bosons: Particles with an even number of protons, neutrons and electrons
- Fermions: odd number of constituents

Only bosons can Bose-Einstein condense!

Can electrons form a Bose-Einstein condensateand become superfluid (superconducting)?

- Two kinds of particles
- Bosons: Particles with an even number of protons, neutrons and electrons
- Fermions: odd number of constituents

Only bosons can Bose-Einstein condense!

How can electrons (fermions) condense?

They have to form pairs!

Can we learn something aboutsuperconductivityof electrons from cold atoms?

Yes, by studying pairing and superfluidity of atoms with an odd number of protons, electrons and neutrons

BEC of Fermion Pairs (“Molecules”)

These days: Up to 10 million condensed molecules

Boulder Nov ‘03Innsbruck Nov ‘03, Jan ’04

MIT Nov ’03Paris March ’04

Rice, Duke

M.W. Zwierlein, C. A. Stan, C. H. Schunck,S.M. F. Raupach, S. Gupta, Z. Hadzibabic,W.K., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 250401 (2003)

Gallery of superfluid gases

Atomic Bose-Einsteincondensate (sodium)

Molecular Bose-Einsteincondensate (lithium 6Li2)

Pairs of fermionicatoms (lithium-6)

A “toolbox” for designer matter

- Normal matter
- Tightly packed atoms
- Complicated Interactions
- Impurities and defects

A “toolbox” for designer matter

- Matter of ultracold atoms
- 100 million times lower density
- Interactions understood and controlled
- no impurities
- exact calculations possible

Need 100 million times colder temperatures

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