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Ancient African Kingdoms. World History I. BENIN Government. Forest people Kings known as Obas Women – held own councils, religious ceremonies. Fact or Fiction?. Some stories say the chiefs invited Oranyan from Ife to become the leader.

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Ancient african kingdoms l.jpg

Ancient African Kingdoms

World History I


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BENIN Government

  • Forest people

  • Kings known as Obas

  • Women – held own councils, religious ceremonies


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Fact or Fiction?

  • Some stories say the chiefs invited Oranyan from Ife to become the leader.

  • Oranyan stayed long enough to father a child and leave. This child became King Eweka.


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Oba Ewuare

  • 15th century leader Oba Ewuare began rule that father should be succeeded by son.

    • He set up a system of checks and balances.


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Growth of Benin

  • Benin citizens became wealthy

  • Because they were wealthy…


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Ghana A Sahelian Kingdom

  • African people, like the Berbers, formed a new kingdom called Ghana or Akwar


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Twin Cities

  • Built capital – Kumbi Saleh -on the edge of the Sahara

    • Kings and officers

    • People living in six miles between


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Says who? I do…

  • Ruled by a hereditary king called “Ghana”

  • King in charge of military and was supreme judge – believed to be partly divine and able to talk with gods


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Trade

  • King claimed to own all gold nuggets and others could only trade for gold dust

  • Tremendously strong in trade


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Life in Ghana

  • King had 200,000 warriors

  • Kingdom never converted to Islam but allowed Muslims to stay there

  • Around 1075, Berbers (the Almorvids) declared a holy war (jihad) on Ghana

  • Berbers controlled for 10 years before Ghana took back control


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In closing…

  • Ghana was never as strong

  • The Almorvids never recovered and fell apart into separate chiefdoms again; however, many believe a magician came and started the Mali Kingdom…


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MaliSecond Great Sahelian Kingdom

  • Historical founder was magician, Sundiata, who ruled from 1230-1255

    • 11 of his brothers were murdered so Mali wouldn’t threaten Ghana


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The Battle at Kirina

  • Sundiata fought for a new kingdom while Sumanguru fought to keep Ghana in power

  • Battle of Sorcery Outcome


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Blasts from the Past

  • Most significant of Mali kings was Mansa Musa (1312-1337)

  • Established Timbuktu


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Downfall

  • Berbers disrupted peace in 1430 – region of Gao fell apart

  • Led to rise of Songhai kingdom


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Songhai

Managed thousands of cultures

Was the largest empire in African history

Gao was Songhai’s capital

Had originally competed with Mali for control


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Ali the Terror

  • Sonny Ali was a Sunni king (1464-1492)

    • Ruthless tyrant

    • Very strong militarily

    • Ali captured Timbuktu and Jenne

    • Pushed Berbers north


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Askia Muhammad Toure

  • Succeeded Ali

    • established new dynasty

    • Expanded empire


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Toure de Force

  • Toure established an elaborate government

    • Appointed Muslim judges to run under Islamic legal principles


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Great Zimbabwe “Mwenemutapa”

  • Includes present-day Zimbabwe

  • Surrounded by huge, elliptical stone walls made without any mortar


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Trade

  • Exports

  • Traded with China, Persia and India

  • Cities grew


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Truly African

  • Considered by historians to be truly African


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Divine King

  • King was considered divine

  • Kingdom weakened by internal brotherly quarrels beginning in the 1500s


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Box Score

  • Kush – 750 – 350 A.D.

  • Ghana – 500 – 1235 C.E.

  • Mali – 1235 – 1468

  • Benin – 1000 – 1700

  • Songhai – 1468 – 1591

  • Great Zimbabwe – 1000 – 1500


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