Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini: Rise of Totalitarianism Past Test Questions

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How similar were the methods by which Hitler and Stalin governed Germany and the USSR respectively during the 1930s?. ?cult of personality" ? propagandaOnly one party (Nazi; Communist)Control of education; Hitler Youth, Young CommunistsSecret Police; Gestapo, ChekaCensorship; PravdaEliminate al

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Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini: Rise of Totalitarianism Past Test Questions

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1. Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini: Rise of Totalitarianism Past Test Questions

2. How similar were the methods by which Hitler and Stalin governed Germany and the USSR respectively during the 1930s? “cult of personality” – propaganda Only one party (Nazi; Communist) Control of education; Hitler Youth, Young Communists Secret Police; Gestapo, Cheka Censorship; Pravda Eliminate all resistors; concentration camps,purges

3. Differences Hitler is racist; anti-semitism Stalin is communist/socialist Hitler is capitalist/private enterprise Stalin’s collectivization Hitler’s invasions Stalin: economic industrialization(in Russia) Hitler: military industrialization

4. How far do you agree that economic reasons were the most important cause of the rise of a totalitarian government in either Germany or Italy during the 1920s and 1930s? Agree: Germany; Weimar Republic failing High inflation; war reparations; loans Unemployed returning soldiers Lack of unified approach from government No past experience with democracy Loss of natural resources in Alsace/Lorraine Peace settlement was forced/low morale Great Depression/Dawes Plan

5. Other Factors Lost World War I Treaty of Versailles Communist Revolution Industrial warfare Hostile alliances Influence of fascism Cult of personality

6. How important was the ‘cult of personality’ to Hitler’s rule in the period to 1939? Germans needed a hero/lost WWI Hitler: charismatic/speeches/propaganda Hitler was arrested/jailed/Mein Kampf Hitler had a vision/military background Aryan pride/purification/anti-semitism Fascism(Mussolini) inspired Nazism Totalitarianism requires strong leader

7. Other factors Economics: Great Depression, war reparations,Treaty of Versailles,inflation,unemployment Communist revolution in Russia Hostile alliance system Weimar government weaknesses Militaristic history/wars to unify

8. Why was Hitler able to establish dictatorial rule in Germany in the 1930s? Loss of WWI; resentment of Versailles Economic factors (reparations, unemployment, Dawes plan, etc.) Communist revolution/Red scare Weimar weakness; no democratic tradition Militaristic history “cult of personality” Totalitarian tactics Reichstag fire/Enabling Act/Hitler Youth

9. How accurate is the claim that the effects of World War I were the most important reason for the rise of totalitarian governments in Europe during the period to 1939? (You should refer to at least two of Germany, Italy, and Russia in your answer.) Russia: 1917 revolutions caused by WWI Communist party follows Marxist plan Lenin/Stalin use losses in WWI as excuse to radically change Russian politics and economics Industrialization must be expedited Red Army wins against White Army Need collectivization/5 year plans/industry

10. Germany Treaty of Versailles leaves resentment War reparations/War Guilt clause Weimar government/ problems/inflation “stab in the back” theory Aryan supremacy/ anti-semitism Red Scare/ Russian revolution Hitler is war veteran/militaristic history

11. How far, by 1939, had Hitler solved the problems that had faced the Weimar republic? Inflation/war reparations- Hitler cancelled war reparatons; government funded building projects and military;eased unemployment Conflicting political parties- Hitler banned all but Nazi Shame of war guilt- Hitler declared Treaty of Versailles to be null Lack of patriotism- Hitler led parades, festivals, Nazi banners, Hitler Youth

12. Why, by 1939, had Stalin been able to impose totalitarian rule on the Soviet Union? Lenin laid the groundwork(Communist party only; Cheka; socialist economy; Red Army defeats White Army ) Stalin’s collectivization and 5 year plans Stalin’s purges Aftermath of WWI/Great Depression means other European countries preoccupied League of Nations has no enforcer

13. Assess the claim that Hitler’s rule from 1933 to 1939 was ‘a popular dictatorship’. Popular means supported by the people The Nazi party gained seats in Reichstag Hitler was leader of the party Hindenberg appointed Hitler as Chancellor Nazi’s became majority party by vote Hitler used the Weimar constitution to pass the Enabling Act after the Reichstag fire

14. Not “popular”? He banned all opposition parties Hitler Youth or else? Anti-semitism/Nuremberg Laws Government dictated to businesses SS and Gestapo

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