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OBSERVATIONS OF TEACHER EXPERTISE BEHAVIOR BASED ON A CHECKLIST DEVELOPED FROM STUDENT PERCEPTIONS. EdCamp Philly unConference David D. Timony, Ph.D. May 22, 2010. Statement of the problem.

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observations of teacher expertise behavior based on a checklist developed from student perceptions

OBSERVATIONS OF TEACHER EXPERTISE BEHAVIOR BASED ON A CHECKLIST DEVELOPED FROM STUDENT PERCEPTIONS

EdCamp Philly

unConference

David D. Timony, Ph.D.

May 22, 2010

statement of the problem
Statement of the problem

Expertise theory is not an applicable approach to exploration in the classroom. This is primarily due to the fact that the focus of expert performance is misplaced.

purpose
Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine student perceptions regarding teacher expertise in the classroom.

significance of this study
Significance of this study

The utilization of student perception of teacher expertise is an area of research that has not been approached in this manner.

By examining the behaviors that students perceive as functions and indicators of teacher expertise, it is my aim to explore the relationships among student perception, student/teacher outcomes, and inter-collegial perception.

expertise theory background
Expertise theory background
  • 1899 Bryan & Harter
    • Telegraphers
    • Automaticity
  • More current trends are an outgrowth of Information processing theory
  • 1965 de Groot chess masters
  • 1998 Ericsson scientific study of expert performance and expert acquisition
key components of expertise development
Key components of Expertise development
  • Deliberate practice
  • Mentoring/coaching
  • Domain specificity
  • Principled knowledge
slide7
Glaser & Chi (1988)

Experts

  • Excel in domain
  • Perceive meaningful patterns
  • Perform with speed & accuracy
  • Possess better short/long term memory
  • Perceive problems in deep, principled way
  • Analyze problems qualitatively
  • Self-monitor effectively in problem solving
slide8
Ericsson, Charness, & Tesch-Romer (1993)

Experts

  • Perform 10+ years of practice
  • Utilize maximal adaptation within constraints of problems
an expert
An expert…

To whom?

an untapped resource
An untapped resource
  • Student as Expert?

or

  • Student as consumer of Expertise?

A new inquiry

How capable are students of identifying expertise in the classroom?

competence
Competence

Defining the rules and roles in instructional contexts (Shelton, Lane, & Waldhart, 1999)

  • Student perceptions of college teachers
  • College teachers’ conveyance of competence
  • Positive perceptions benefit teacher and student
study one
Study One

An inquiry began in the interest of exploring the perceptions of high school students regarding their experiences and reactions to teachers whom they perceived to be experts or novices.

research questions
Research questions
  • Is there a difference between high school students and adults who participate in the Student Perception Descriptor survey?
  • Are students as perceptive as teachers and administrators in identifying behaviors of novice and expert teachers?
  • Do students adjust their effort based on their perception of teacher expertise?
discussion group
Discussion group

Participants

15 high school students

African American

Low SES

Urban boarding school

procedure
Procedure

Student Perception Descriptor Survey

  • 100-item survey
  • Based on frequency and clarity of statements
  • 49 items predicted as expert descriptors
  • 48 items predicted as novice descriptors
  • 3 dichotomous items included
  • Many student generated descriptors are reflective of the descriptors found in competence literature
survey
Survey

Participants

27 high school students

13 faculty members

5-25 years in current positions

range of content areas

10 university students

results
Results

The mean responses of the high school students range from 1.44 to 4.37 (2.93)

compared to

high school teachers whose responses range from 2.23 to 3.85 (1.62)

results1
Results

An ANOVA revealed 9 variables w/significant differences at the .01 level and 11 variables with significant differences at the .05 level.

On eight of the nine items in the .01 range, the high school students rated the items as predicted when the survey was created.

In all but two cases, the high school teachers rated the survey items in the 3 range.

admins and teachers riding the fence
Admins and teachers riding the fence?
  • not reliant on textbook
  • students give extra effort
  • well educated
  • demonstrates self control
  • students feel like they are learning
summary
Summary

Research question #1:

Is there a difference between high school students and adults who participate in the Student Perception Descriptor survey?

There were significant differences between students and adults on 20 items.

summary1
Summary

Research question #2:

Are students as perceptive as teachers and administrators in identifying behaviors of novice and expert teachers?

Overall, the administrators and high school teachers were more likely to choose ‘either’ than the college students or the high school students

summary2
Summary

Research question #3:

Do students adjust their effort based on their perception of teacher expertise?

Students in the discussion group reported that the decreased their effort if they perceived teachers to be novices.

the major study1
The major study
  • Classroom observations of 25 teachers
    • Regular class periods of 42-60 minutes in length
  • Two non-traditional schools
    • Public charter school
    • Semi-private boarding school
  • Matching content areas
    • Social sciences 3/4
    • Language arts 4/3
    • Mathematics 3/3
    • Science 3/2
measures
Measures
  • Teacher Behavior Checklist
    • Original instrument
    • Developed from Study One data
  • Existing means: questionnaires
    • Summarized in Palmer et al. (2005)
      • Training
      • Certification
      • Affiliations
      • Tenure
      • Principal indication and ranking
research questions1
Research questions:

What type and frequency of behaviors from the Teacher Behavior Checklist are demonstrated in the high school classroom?

What is the relationship among teachers indicated as experts according to existing means, nominated as experts by their supervisors, and those indicated as experts according to behaviors observed in class using the Teacher Behavior Checklist?

expert scoring

Question 1

Expert scoring
  • Expert score
    • Total expert behaviors observed / total opportunities
  • Novice score
    • Total novice behaviors observed / total opportunities
  • Expertise composite
    • Expert score / Novice score
intercorrelations

Question 2

Intercorrelations

Uses examples

Explains the subject clearly and effectively

Controls class through teaching

Controls the pace of learning

Maintains little control over the class

Can be taken advantage of

Pushes students to excel

Students excel

Controls the pace of learning

Maintains little control over the class

---

Students excel

Students give extra effort

Immature

Inconsistent with expectations

teacher types

Question 2

Teacher types

Correlations with four existing measures:

Principal rank

Experience

Cooperating teacher

Mentoring teacher

principal rank

Question 2

Principal rank

Correlated items primarily focus on the operation of the classroom rather than content or outcomes.

Helpful

not Immature

Professional towards all students

doesn’t want to Fit in with students

Maintains control over the classroom

experienced teachers

Question 2

Experienced teachers

Correlated items focus on content knowledge and the delivery of teaching.

Impresses students with knowledge

Knows a subject thoroughly

Easy to understand

Explains the subject clearly and effectively

Incorporates new concepts well

Controls the pace of learning

Moves at a challenging pace

Uses examples

cooperating teacher

Question 2

Cooperating teacher

Correlated items focus on relationships with students

Aims to please students

Confident

Controls the pace of learning

Friendly

Gives students proper respect

Knows the range of student abilities

Not quick to send students to the office

Treats all students the same

mentoring teacher

Question 2

Mentoring teacher

Correlated items were a mix of content, delivery, classroom management, and student relationship items.

Explains the subject clearly and effectively

Incorporates new concepts well

Knows the range of students’ ability

Uses examples

Brings authority to the workplace

Controls the class through teaching

Controls the pace of learning

Gives students proper respect

Sees things from the students’ points of view

behavioral schemes

Question 2

Behavioral schemes

A greater number of expert behaviors were demonstrated by teachers who were:

more experienced

cooperating teachers

mentors

tenured

behavioral schemes1

Question 2

Behavioral schemes

A greater number of expert behaviors were demonstrated by teachers who were also indicated as experts by:

Cleary & Groer (1994)

Moallem (1998)

Swanson, O’Connor, & Cooney (1990)

expert scoring1

Question 2

Expert scoring

Higher Expert scores were calculated for teachers who were:

more experienced

cooperating teachers

cooperating teachers many times

mentors

tenured

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Student reported expert and novice behaviors were accurate and measurable.
  • This study provides support for the utility of high school student perception in the evaluation of teacher expertise.
  • Support for the hypothesis that teachers with more expertise use a narrower behavioral scheme is supported by the data in this study.
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • This study opens many doors and asks many more questions while beginning to address an important gap in the literature.

I am eager to continue seeking these answers.

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