Chapter 12 republic of texas
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Chapter 12 Republic of Texas. Section 1: Sam Houston’s Government. D. Houston’s foreign policy goals. Foreign policies are a government’s plan to deal with issues with other countries .

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Chapter 12 Republic of Texas

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Chapter 12 republic of texas

Chapter 12Republic of Texas

Section 1: Sam Houston’s Government


Chapter 12 republic of texas

  • D. Houston’s foreign policy goals.

  • Foreign policies are a government’s plan to deal with issues with other countries.

  • 1. Annexation: Texans voted to ratify the Constitution of 1836 and to support annexation by the United States.

    • Annexation: when one country takes over all or part of another country.

  • 2. Recognition: The United States recognized Texas as a nation. Other nations waited to see if Texas could hold on to its freedom.


Chapter 12 republic of texas

  • E. Domestic policiesare a government’s plans to deal with issues inside the country.

  • 1. Military problems - Most of Houston’s new troops had missed the Texas Revolution and they wanted to attack Mexico. Houston sent many of them home on leave. This saved money and keep them from causing trouble.

  • 2. Relations with Texas Indians - Houston sent messages of friendship to several tribes. He tried to make treaties and set up trading posts. He had little support from Congress.

  • 3. Economic policies- Houston tried to cut government spending and impose taxes. However, few Texans could pay. He printed money, which proved to be worth very little.


Chapter 12 republic of texas

  • Under Sam Houston’s leadership, the new congress began work in October of 1836.

  • B. He formed a cabinet.

  • cabinet: a group of people in charge of carrying out the duties of the executive branch.

  • Houston named Stephen F. Austin to his cabinet as secretary of state. Austin was in charge of relations with other countries.

  • Columbia: first capital.

  • C. Sam Houston moved the capital to the town of Houston.


Sam houston could not run for reelection

Sam Houston could not run for reelection.

  • The Texas Constitution of 1836 limited the presidency to 3 year terms, or length of time in office.

  • He could run again but he could not serve two consecutive, or back to back terms.


Revenue

revenue

  • Means money you earn or receive

  • You pay your bills with revenue


Expenditure

Expenditure

  • Means money paid out or money you spend


Chapter 12 republic of texas

  • Foreign policy is a government’s plan to deal with

    • (A) its enemies.

    • (B) immigration.

    • (C) issues inside the country.

    • (D) issues outside the country.

  • Why was Houston able to understand the problems of Native American tribes?

    • (A) He was a Native American himself.

    • (B) He had lived among the Cherokees for several years.

    • (C) His mother was a Native American.

    • (D) He was married to a Native American.


  • Chapter 12 republic of texas

    • Foreign policy is a government’s plan to deal with

      • (A) its enemies.

      • (B) immigration.

      • (C) issues inside the country.

      • (D) issues outside the country.

  • Why was Houston able to understand the problems of Native American tribes?

    • (A) He was a Native American himself.

    • (B) He had lived among the Cherokees for several years.

    • (C) His mother was a Native American.

    • (D) He was married to a Native American.


  • Section 2 lamar as president 1838 1841

    Section 2: Lamar as President1838-1841

    • In 1838, Mirabeau Lamar became president of the Republic. He changed many of Houston’s policies.

      1. Lamar persuaded Congress to move the capital to a small frontier settlement called Waterloo.

      2. As Waterloo grew, Congress renamed it Austin, in honor of Stephen F. Austin.


    3 lamar s foreign policies

    3. Lamar’s Foreign Policies

    • Relations with Mexico:

      1. Lamar offered Mexico $5 million to:

      • recognize Texas independence

      • accept the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas

        Mexico rejected the offer and would not negotiate.

        2. Lamar tried to convince Santa Fe and eastern New Mexico to join Texas. His Santa Fe expedition angered Mexico.

        Expedition - a journey made for some special purpose


    B lamar was against annexation

    B. Lamar was Against Annexation

    1. Lamar wanted the Republic of Texas to become a great nation like the United States.

    2. While he was president, France, then Great Britain, the Netherlands and Belgium all recognized Texas as a nation and agreed to trade with Texas.


    4 lamar s domestic policy

    4. Lamar’s Domestic Policy

    A. Eduation: His belief: people need education to make good decisions.

    1. Set aside land for public schools and 2 public universities.

    2. Started the state’s endowment fund: money set aside for a specific purpose.


    Chapter 12 republic of texas

    B. Military - Lamar strengthened the army and built a new navy. Believed strong military would force Mexico to recognize Texas.

    C. Relations with Indians – Felt Indians had not place in Texas. He used the army and Texas Rangers to drive the Indians from the frontier. He removed the Cherokee from Texas in a battle fought by Van, Texas. They were sent to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma.

    D. Economic policies - Lamar ordered millions of paper dollars printed which had no value. His spending put Texas deeper in debt.


    Redbacks

    Redbacks

    • Paper money which was not backed by gold or money in the treasury.

    • It had no real value.

    • A dollar became worth about 15 cents.

    • This devaluation of Texas currency (money)

      increased the Texas debt.

    Value of Texas money:


    Sam houston s 2 nd term 1841 1844

    Sam Houston’s 2nd Term 1841-1844

    • Sam Houston worked to reduce debt created by Lamar’s policies.

    • Sam Houston worked to renew peace with Indians

    • He settled a dispute over land titles in East Texas called the Regulator-Moderator War.


    The archives war

    The Archives War

    • Mexican forces invaded South Texas after the Santa Fe Expedition.

    • Houston ordered Texas Rangers to move the archives from Austin to Houston to be safer from attack.

    • Archives are collections of important public documents, such as constitutions and other public records.

    • The people of Austin resisted this move and attacked the Texas Rangers. The archives remained in Austin.


    Woll invasion

    Woll Invasion

    • Mexican army of 1,400 invaded Texas in Sept. 1842 led by General Woll.

    • They occupied San Antonio until the Texas Rangers and the militia drove them out after heavy fighting.


    Somervell expedition

    Somervell Expedition

    • Houston sent General Somervell to make sure that the Mexican army had left Texas.

    • He was told to invade Mexico only if he could beat the Mexicans. Somervell felt he could not, so he withdrew his troops.


    Soldiers disobey orders

    Soldiers disobey orders

    • The Mier ExpeditionSome 300 of Somervell’s men refused to go home. Instead they attacked the Mexican town of Mier. When they ran out of supplies, they surrendered.

    • Many escaped but were recaptured. As punishment, Santa Anna ordered 10 percent of them executed.

    • In the Black Bean Episode, a lottery selected which 17 Texans would die.1.


    Chapter 12 republic of texas

    Why did Houston order Texas Rangers to move the archives?

    (A) He wanted to show the city of Austin how much power he had.

    (B) He feared they would fall into the hands of the Mexicans.

    (C) He wanted them kept in his namesake town.

    (D) He did not like the city of Austin.

    What did the lottery in the Black Bean Episode determine?

    (A) Whether or not Texans would attack Mexico

    (B) Who would get to name the capital of the Republic

    (C) Which parcels of land in Texas would be given away

    (D) Which Texans would be executed by Santa Anna’s troops


    Answers

    Answers

    • Why did Houston order Texas Rangers to move the archives?

      • (A) He wanted to show the city of Austin how much power he had.

      • (B) He feared they would fall into the hands of the Mexicans.

      • (C) He wanted them kept in his namesake town.

      • (D) He did not like the city of Austin.

  • What did the lottery in the Black Bean Episode determine?

    • (A) Whether or not Texans would attack Mexico

    • (B) Who would get to name the capital of the Republic

    • (C) Which parcels of land in Texas would be given away

    • (D) Which Texans would be executed by Santa Anna’s troops


  • Anson jones 1844 1845

    Anson Jones 1844-1845

    Presidential Policies

    • Maintained Houston’s peace policy toward Native Americans in Texas

    • Tried to make peace with Mexico

    • Tried to convince Mexico to recognize the independence of Texas

    • Tried to convince the United States to annex Texas


    Issues for the u s and texas

    Issues for the U.S. and Texas

    Arguments For Annexation

    • Being part of the United States would protect Texas from being retaken by Mexico.

    • Joining the Union would enable Texans to use U.S currency, or money.

    • Many Texans had family ties in the United States.

    • U.S. would gain a huge piece of land.

      Arguments Against Annexation

    • As a slave state, Texas would upset the balance of free and slave states in the U.S. Congress.

    • The United States was reluctant to admit a state so deeply in debt.

    • Angering Mexico.


    Texas tries to become territory

    Texas tries to become territory

    The Treaty of 1844

    U.S. Senate did not approve the Treaty.

    • Texas would have become a territory of the United States.

    • Texas would have given up its public lands (lands owned by the government rather than by individuals).

    • The United States would pay the debts of the Republic


    Annexation happens

    Annexation happens

    The Joint Resolution of 1845

    • Texas would join the United States as a state after its people approved a constitution.

    • Texas would keep its public lands. Money used from the sale of public lands would be used to pay off the Texas debt.

    • Texas could divide into as many as four states.

    • Texas would be a slave state.

      Mexico offered to recognize Texas independence—if Texas rejected annexation by the United States.

      Joint resolution- an act of both houses of Congress that has the power of law


    Chapter 13

    Chapter 13

    • Between 1836 and 1845, many people moved to Texas for its abundance of cheap land. Texas leaders gave land to veterans and families of Texans killed in the revolution. No land was offered to African Americans or Native Americans.

    • Texas required new settlers to live on the land for three years before they were given full ownership. The government did this to discourage land speculators.

    • To speed up settlement, the government brought back the empresariosystem.

      Veteran- a person who served in the armed forces


    Texas population during republic years

    Texas population during Republic years


    Immigration from u s and europe

    Immigration from U.S. and Europe

    • Homestead Act of 1839: Texas Congress passed a law protecting family homes, tools and 50 acres from seizure when people owed money.

    • New empresarios are called Immigrant agents.

    • Adelsverein brought in many Germans who settled the Hill Country around Austin.

    • These people left Germany because of overpopulation, poverty, heavy taxes and political problems there.


    Slavery increased in texas

    Slavery increased in Texas

    • Tensions were increasing in the U.S. over the slavery issue.

    • Land in the U.S. was wearing out so planters moved to Texas to grow cotton.

    • They brought slaves and the African-American population in Texas increased.


    Tejanos faced prejudice

    Tejanos faced prejudice.

    • The Texas Revolution and continued problems with Mexico created problems for Tejanos.

    • New Texans did not realize the sacrifices many had made for Texas independence.

    • Prejudice happens when someone is judged by a stereotype about a group of people.


    Agriculture in the republic

    Agriculture in the Republic

    Farmers

    • Most farms in the Republic were small family farms.

    • Most farmers practiced subsistence farming. They grew just enough crops to support the farm. Corn was the largest subsistence crop.

    • Some planted cash crops, crops that are sold for profit.

    • The largest cash crop was cotton.

      Ranchers

    • Cattle ate for free on public grazing land.

    • Ranchers had more cattle than they could sell.

    • Ranchers were challenged by thieves, drought, and disease.

    • Sheep ranching grew as U.S. textile mills began requesting wool.


    End of chapter 13

    End of Chapter 13

    • You will be tested over these notes on the Chapter 12 and 13 Test.


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