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Issues and Challenges for Transportation Fuels Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories. Energy and Water are … Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water. Energy and power production require water: Thermoelectric cooling

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Issues and challenges for transportation fuels mike hightower sandia national laboratories

Issues and Challenges for Transportation Fuels

Mike Hightower

Sandia National Laboratories


Energy and water are interdependent water for energy and energy for water
Energy and Water are … InterdependentWater for EnergyandEnergy for Water

  • Energy and power production require water:

  • Thermoelectric cooling

  • Hydropower

  • Energy minerals extraction/mining

  • Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H2, biofuels)

  • Emission control

  • Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy:

  • Pumping

  • Conveyance and Transport

  • Treatment

  • Use conditioning

  • Surface and Ground water


Global increase in energy consumption means more competition for water
Global Increase in Energy Consumption – Means more competition for water

IEA projects 5,000 Mtoe increase between 2007 and 2030,

Continuing the trend of the past 30 years


Energy water connections
Energy-Water Connections competition for water

  • Energy sector accounts for 8% of worldwide fresh water withdrawals

    • 40% of withdrawals in developed countries

  • Energy sector contributes to water quality issues

    • Traditional oil and gas produced water; biofuels, oil sands, oil shale, gas shale, and coal bed methane waste water; water drainage from coal and uranium mines; power plant emissions and impact on surface water quality

  • Water and waste water sector energy use is expected to grow substantially

    • Growth in water treatment, new disinfection technologies, increased water transportation needs, etc. will increase energy intensity

    • Water and waste water sector energy use could grow from 3% to 10% of total demand by 2030

    • 30% of India’s energy use is for ground water pumping



Assessment of regional water stress in north america
Assessment of Regional Water Stress Development in North America


Emerging international interest in energy and water issues and challenges
Emerging International Interest in Energy and Water Issues and Challenges

  • Increased media interest

    • NATURE, National Geographic, Scientific American

  • Growing awareness in the business community

    • World Economic Forum report

    • World Business Council

    • World Energy Council

    • ECONOMIST, Journal of Energy Security

  • Growing international concerns and challenges

    • Europe

    • Australia

    • Asia

    • South Africa

    • Canada


The transportation fuel supply challenge
The Transportation Fuel Supply Challenge and Challenges

Source: NPC 2007 Report – “The Hard Truths” - One Year Later

Global Liquids Supply

Millions B/D

IEO 2008 Demand Range

Unconventional,biofuels, and substitution

2015

30 – 45 MBOE/D

Conventional

non OPEC

2030

70-100 MBOE/D

Conventional OPEC

4-7% Production Decline

Existing Production

Capacity

2007

2015

2030


Alternative fuel supply dilemma
Alternative Fuel Supply Dilemma and Challenges

  • Can biofuels/unconventional fuels meet 2030 production goals of 25-35 million barrels/day OE

  • North America could provide ~ 6 million bbls/day

    • Canadian oil sands at 4 M bbl/day OE

    • US biofuels at 2-3 M bbl/day OE

    • But water supply availability and quality issues will impact both

  • What can other regions contribute with current water supply stresses

  • Alternative/substitution options also have water problems

    • Transportation electrification, hydrogen fuels, natural gas-based fuels, oil shales



Canadian oil sands production
Canadian Oil Sands Production Conventional Fuels


EISA 2007 Renewable Fuels Standard Conventional Fuels 36-Billion Gallons of Biofuel by 2022

U.S. will miss cellulosic fuel target in 2010 and 2011 by ~ 250 Mgal


Alternative transportation fuels and water use impacts are often regional
Alternative Transportation Fuels Conventional Fuels and Water Use Impacts are Often Regional

Cellulosic Biomass

Oil Shale


Biofuels scale up can also have land issues driving interest in algae etc
Biofuels Conventional Fuels scale up can also have land issues – driving interest in Algae etc.

Corn

Soy

Algae

  • Biofuels derived from algae:

  • Can potentially avoid competition with agricultural lands for food & feed production.

  • Can potentially reduce global deforestation area (Science, 2008).

  • Can utilize non-fresh water resources… Potentially reducing fresh water depletion.

“Algal and Terrestrial Second-Generation Biofuels – Chevron and the New Energy Equation,” P. Bryan, S. Miller, Chevron Biofuels, Chevron ETC


Shale gas based fuels are realistic in north america but development is limited by water
Shale gas based fuels are realistic in North America, but development is limited by water

Extensive North American Reserves

  • Water is used in drilling, completion, and fracturing

  • 2-5 million gallons of water is needed per well

  • Water recovery can be 20% to 70%

  • Recovered water quality varies – from 10,000 ppm TDS to 100,000 ppm TDS

  • Recovered water disposal or treatment can be problematic in some areas



Suggested water research program for alternative fuels sector
Suggested Water Research Alternatives is and IssueProgram for Alternative Fuels Sector

  • Reduce water use for cooling in biofuels and alternative fuels production

  • Reduce water use in processing

  • Develop low fresh water use technologies such as algal biodiesel

  • Assess non-traditional water use for fuels applications

  • Assess hydrologic impacts of large cellulose biofuels scale-up and oil shale, etc.


Approaches use non traditional water resources could be sustainable
Approaches use Non-traditional Alternatives is and IssueWater Resources could be Sustainable

Saline Aquifers

Oil and Gas Produced Water


Sustainable fuels through co utilization and co location infrastructure options
Sustainable Fuels through Co-utilization Alternatives is and Issueand Co-location Infrastructure Options

Waste water for biofuels

Low water use Renewables

for electric vehicles


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