AGGETTIVI

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An adjective is a word that is used to modify, supplement, add to, or restrict the meaning of a noun or pronoun. An adjective typically occurs after nouns in a noun phrase or in the predicate: . una bella ragazza francese entr? nella stanza. (The beautiful young French girl entered into the room.) Lui era felice. (He was happy.) .

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AGGETTIVI

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1. AGGETTIVI

2. An adjective is a word that is used to modify, supplement, add to, or restrict the meaning of a noun or pronoun. An adjective typically occurs after nouns in a noun phrase or in the predicate:

3. una bella ragazza francese entrò nella stanza. (The beautiful young French girl entered into the room.) Lui era felice. (He was happy.)

4. Italian adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify:

5. adjectives-gender Regular adjectives with separate masculine and feminine forms end in -o (m.) and -a (f.) in the singular, -i (m.) and -e (f.) in the plural: masculine feminine Singular contento contenta Plural contenti contente Regular adjectives with identical masculine and feminine forms have a singular ending -e and a plural ending -i.

6. masculine feminine Singular triste triste Plural tristi tristi L'uomo è contento. (The man is happy.) Marzia è bella. (Marzia is beautiful.) I miei denti sono bianchi. (My teeth are white.) Le ragazze sono tristi. (The girls are sad.) Ho un vestito verde. (I have a green dress.) Ci sono delle tartarughe verdi. (There are some green turtles.)

7. Certain adjectives change their spelling in the plural. These changes follow the same pattern nouns do. Other changes depend on where the stress falls in the word. Stress on syllable preceding -co: co to chi ricco ricchi (rich) [m.] ca to che ricca ricche (rich) [f.]

8. stress on second syllable preceding -co: co to chi stanco stanchi (tired) [m.] ca to che antipatica antipatiche (disagreeable) [f.] go to ghi lungo lunghi (long) [m.] ga to ghe lunga lunghe (long) [f.]

9. The -i is not stressed: io to i vecchio vecchi (old) [m.] ia to ie vecchia vecchie (old) [f.]

10. The -i is stressed: io to ii restio restii (reluctant) [m.] ia to ie restia restie (reluctant) [f.] cio to ci riccio ricci (curly)[m.] cia to ce riccia ricce (curly)[f.] gio to gi greggio greggi (rough) [m.] gia to ge greggia gregge (rough)[f.]

11. Adjectives of color that were originally nouns (blu, rosa, marrone, viola, arancione) are invariable; that is, they do not change form depending on number and gender. dei i fiori rosa (some pink flowers) i vestiti marrone (the brown clothes) scarpe nere e guanti viola (black shoes and purple gloves)

12. Regular adjectives with separate masculine and feminine forms end in -o (m.) and -a (f.) in the singular, -i (m.) and -e (f.) in the plural: masculine feminine Singular contento contenta Plural contenti contente

13. Regular adjectives with identical masculine and feminine forms have a singular ending -e and a plural ending -i. masculine feminine Singular triste triste Plural tristi tristi L'uomo è contento. (The man is happy.) Marzia è bella. (Marzia is beautiful.) I miei denti sono bianchi. (My teeth are white.) Le ragazze sono tristi. (The girls are sad.) Ho un vestito verde. (I have a green dress.) Ci sono delle tartarughe verdi. (There are some green turtles.)

14. Certain adjectives change their spelling in the plural. These changes follow the same pattern nouns do. Other changes depend on where the stress falls in the word. Stress on syllable preceding -co: co to chi ricco ricchi (rich) [m.] ca to che ricca ricche (rich) [f.]

15. Stress on second syllable preceding -co: co to chi stanco stanchi (tired) [m.] ca to che antipatica antipatiche (disagreeable) [f.] go to ghi lungo lunghi (long) [m.] ga to ghe lunga lunghe (long) [f.]

16. The -i is not stressed: io to i vecchio vecchi (old) [m.] ia to ie vecchia vecchie (old) [f.]

17. The -i is stressed: io to ii restio restii (reluctant) [m.] ia to ie restia restie (reluctant) [f.] cio to ci riccio ricci (curly)[m.] cia to ce riccia ricce (curly)[f.] gio to gi greggio greggi (rough) [m.] gia to ge greggia gregge (rough)[f.]

18. Adjectives of color that were originally nouns (blu, rosa, marrone, viola, arancione) are invariable; that is, they do not change form depending on number and gender. dei i fiori rosa (some pink flowers) i vestiti marrone (the brown clothes) scarpe nere e guanti viola (black shoes and purple gloves)

19. Possessive adjectives (aggettivi possessivi) are usually compound forms which include a definite article that cannot be translated into English. The same forms are used for both possessive adjecitves and possessive pronouns.

20. The forms of the possessive adjectives and pronouns are: masculine feminine singular plural singular plural il mio i miei la mia le mie (my, mine) il tuo i tuoi la tua le tue (your, yours (familiar)) il suo i suoi la sua le sue (his, her, hers, your, yours (polite)) il nostro i nostri la nostra le nostre (our, ours) il vostro i vostri la vostra le vostre (your, yours(familiar)) il loro i loro la loro le loro (their, theirs/your, yours (polite))

21. It is important to note that possessives agree in gender and number with the object possessed, rather than with the possessor: i miei amici (my friends) la mia università (my university) i nostri cani (our dogs) Italo e la sua pipa (Italo and his pipe)

22. Possessive pronouns are identical in form to possessive adjectives; the difference is in meaning. Where the possessive adjective il mio means my for example, the possessive pronoun il mio means mine le tue scarpe e le mie (your shoes and mine)

23. If clarification is necessary possession may be expressed by means of di with a disjunctive pronoun: Francesa e il suo amico l'amico di lei (Francesca and her friend) (her friend) la sua valigia la valigia di lui (his or her suitcase) (his suitcase)

24. Another possessive adjective is proprio (ones own). It must be used in impersonal expressions instead of the usual possesive forms in the third person. It can also be used to reinforce any possessive. Bisogna portare le proprie valige. (One must carry one's own luggage.) Bisogna riconoscere i propri errori. (One must recognize one's mistakes.)

25. Maurizio porta la propria valigia. (Maurice carries his own suitcase.) Proprio may replace suo or loro when the possessor is the subject of the sentence, or when the subject is indefinite. Ognuno ama la propria patria. (Everyone loves his own country.) Si deve fare il proprio dovere. (One has to do his duty.)

26. In some idiomatic expressions the possessive adjective is used without the definite article and is frequently placed afer the noun. a casa mia (at my house) cara mia (my dear) a suo vantaggio (to his advantage) tesoro mio (my darling) sono affari suoi (it's his business) mamma mia! (heavens!) E' colpa tua. (It is your fault.)

27. When referring to articles of clothing and parts of the body, the definite article is regularly used instead of the possessive adjective: Si mette le scarpe. (She puts on her shoes.) Porta i guanti e il capello. (He wears his gloves and his hat.)

28. The definite article is NOT used before nouns denoting family relationships if they are used in the singular and are not modified by an adjective or suffix. Il loro is an exception.It always requires an article. mio fratello i miei fratelli (my brother my brothers) tuo zio i tuoi zii (your uncle your uncles) sua sorella le sue sorelle (her sister her sisters) nostra madre le nostre madri (our mother our mothers) vostro padre i vostri padri (your father your fathers) il loro cugino i loro cugini (their cousin their cousins)

29. Note that papà (babbo in Tuscany), mamma, nonno, and nonna retain the article: Il mio papà lavora a casa. (My father works at home.) La tua mamma è molto bella. (Your mother is very beautiful.)

30. An adjective (or a past participle used as an adjective) agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies, either as a direct modifier or as a predicate adjective. An adjective that modifies two or more nouns of a different gender must be used in the masculine plural form. il libro nuovo (the new book) la penna vecchia (the old pen) il ragazzo intelligente (the intelligent boy) la ragazza intelligente (the intelligent girl) la ragazza e il ragazzo sono intelligenti (the boy and the girl are intelligent) il libro e la penna sono nuovi (the book and the pen are new) la porta grande (the big door) la finestra è aperta (the window is open) la porta e la finestra sono aperte (the door and the window are open)

31. If the adjective precedes two nouns, it agrees with the closest one: rosse camicie e vestiti (red shirts and dresses)

32. When buono precedes a singular noun, it has shortened forms similar to those of the indefinite articles un/uno/una/un'. Lui è un buon ragazzo. (He is a good boy.) Maria è una buon'amcica di Giorgio (Maria is a good friend of Giorgio.)

33. When bello precedes the noun it modifies it has forms similar to the definite article. il bel museo (the beautiful museum) la bella amica (the beautiful friend) i begli stadii (the beautiful stadiums)

34. NOUNS:

35. In Italian nouns, pronouns, verbs, articles, and adjectives are the parts of speech which have number. It is important to be able to identify a word as singular or plural because the number of one word will often influence the number of another. Plural Formation Nouns which end in: -o or -e change to i to form the plural: libro libri (book books) treno treni (train trains) giornale giornali (newspaper newspapers) leone leoni (lion lions)

36. -a changes to -e to form the plural: casa case (house houses) penna penne (pen pens) ragazza ragazze (girl girls)

37. a final -i does not alwyas indicate a masculine plural noun. The following are feminine nouns that end in -e. lezione lezioni (lesson lessons) stazione stazioni (station stations) Invariable Nouns

38. Nouns that ends in a vowel with a written accent or in a consonant do not change to form the plural: città città (city cities) film film (film films) caffè caffè (coffee coffees) bar bar (bar bars) virtù virtù (virtue virtues) camion camion (truck trucks) università università (university universities)

39. nouns that end in -i: crisi crisi (crisis crises) tesi tesi (thesis theses)

40. nouns that end in -ie: serie series Exception: una moglie due mogli

41. nouns that are one syllable: re re (king kings) gru gru (crane cranes)

42. abbreviations: una radio due radio (from radiotelefonia) un cinema due cinema (from cinematografo) un frigo due frigo (from frigorifero) una moto due moto (from motocicletta) un'auto due auto (from automobile)

43. Exceptions Some feminine nouns which end in -o either form the plural in -i or (if foreign loanwords) remain unchanged: mano mani (hand hands)

44. Some masculine nouns end in -a; they form their plural in -i: problema problemi (problem problems) programma programmi (program programs) poema poemi (poem poems) dramma drammi (drama dramas)

45. Irregular Plural Some masculine nouns change their gender to feminine in the plural, with a singular looking -a ending rather than the usual plural form -e: uovo uova (egg eggs) dito dita (finger fingers) braccio braccia (arm arms) labbro labbra (lip lips) ciglio ciglia (eyelash eyelashes) paio paia (pair pairs)

46. The plural of certain nouns depends on whether they are masculine or feminine. Masculine nouns ending in -a: -a to -i poeta poeti (poet poets) ista to isti artista artisti (artist artists) ca to chi duca duchi (duke dukes) ga to ghi collega colleghe (colleague colleagues)

47. Feminine nouns: ista to iste artista artiste (artist artists) ca to che banca banche (bank banks) ga to ghe collega colleghi (colleague colleagues)

48. The plural of certain nouns depends on where the stress falls in the word. Masculine nouns: where the i is not stressed io to i negozio negozi (store stores) where the i is stressed io to ii zio zii (uncle uncles) stress on syllable co to chi tedesco tedeschi (German Germans) preceding co stress is on second co to ci medico medici (doctor doctors) syllable preceding co Exceptions: amico/amici; nemico/nemici; greco/greci; porco/porci

49. Feminine nouns: the i is not stressed cia to ce faccia facce (face faces) the i is stressed cia to cie farmacia farmacie (pharmacy pharmacies) the i is not stressed gia to ge spiaggia spiagge (beach beaches) the i is stressed gia to gie bugia bugie (lie lies) Exception: camicia/camicie

50. Masuline nouns ending in -go go to ghi dialogo dialoghi (dialog dialogs) ologo to ologi psicologo psicologi (psychologist psychologists) ----------------

51. articles

52. There are two types of articles in Italian: the definite article ( articolo determinativo) the indefinite article (articoli indeterminativi). They change their forms according to the initial letters of the word that follows it. Definite Article masculine singular: il, lo, l'. masculine plural: i, gli, gli. feminine singular: la, l'. feminine plural: le. il teatro (the theater) lo specchio (the mirror) l'orso (the bear) i denti (the teeth) gli stivali (the boots) gli alberghi (the hotels) la casa (the house) l'anima (the soul) le regole (the rules)

53. Indefinite Article masculine singular: un, uno feminine singular: una, 'un un teatro (a theater) uno specchio (a mirror) un orso (a bear) una casa (a house) un'anima (a soul)

54. pronouns Language allows us to refer to an expression without repeating it. This is achieved by means of special words called pronouns. Paolo dovrebbe essere già qui a questora, ma non lo vedo ancora arrivare. (Paolo should be already here by now, but I still dont see him coming.) Poco fa qualcuno ha bussato alla porta. (Not too long ago, somebody knocked at the door.) Lo is a pronoun and refers to the noun Paolo. Qualcuno is also a pronoun, and it replaces a noun which is not meant to be mentioned.

55. Articoli There are two types of articles in Italian: the definite article ( articolo determinativo) the indefinite article (articoli indeterminativi). They change their forms according to the initial letters of the word that follows it. Definite Article masculine singular: il, lo, l'. masculine plural: i, gli, gli. feminine singular: la, l'. feminine plural: le. il teatro (the theater) lo specchio (the mirror) l'orso (the bear) i denti (the teeth) gli stivali (the boots) gli alberghi (the hotels) la casa (the house) l'anima (the soul) le regole (the rules) The definite articles form contractions with the preceding prepositions: E' vicino all'albergo It's near the hotel. Lisa va dal dottore Lisa goes to the doctor. Indefinite Article masculine singular: un, uno feminine singular: una, 'un un teatro (a theater) uno specchio (a mirror) un orso (a bear) una casa (a house) un'anima (a soul) The Partitive Construction can be considered as the plural form of the indefinite article. The indefinite articles (articoli indeterminativi) are: Masculine: before single consonants: un un teatro (a theater) before consonant cluster: uno uno specchio (a mirror) before vowels: un un orso (a bear) Feminine: before consonants: una una casa (a house) before vowels: un' un'anima (a soul) un is used before masculine nouns beginning with a consonant or a vowel. un cane (a dog) un albergo (a hotel) un leone (a lion) uno is used before masculine nouns beginning with s + a consonant. x, z, gn, ps. uno studente (a student) uno zaino (a backpack) uno psicologo (a psychologist) una is used before feminine nouns beginning with a consonant. una borsa a purse una penna a pen una casa a house un' is used with feminine nouns beginning with a vowel. un'automobile (a car) un'opera (an opera) un'estate (a summer) n Italian, the definite article (articolo determinativo) has a number of different forms, depending on whether the noun it accompanies is masculine or feminine, singular or plural. It also changes its form according to the initial letters of the word that follows it. Masculine singular: before single consonants: il il teatro (the theater) before consonant cluster: lo lo specchio (the mirror) before vowels: l' l'orso (the bear) Masculine plural: before single consonants: i i denti (the teeth) before double consonants: gli gli stivali (the boots) before vowels: gli gli alberghi (the hotels) Feminine singular: before consonants: la la casa (the house) before vowels: l' l'anima (the soul) Feminine plural: invariably: le le regole (the rules) "Z" and "X" count as consonant clusters (pronounced "DS" and "KS"). "Lo" and "la" elide (lose their vowels and take an apostrophe) before words beginning with a vowel.

56. Definite articles are used with nouns which are abstract, general or collective: la vita (life) l'oro (gold) la gente (people)

57. They are used with parts of the body and articles of clothing, where English would use a possessive adjective: Si lava le mani. (She washed her hands.) Si mette le scarpe. (He puts on his shoes.)

58. Definite articles are also used with titles preceding a last name, except in direct address: Il signor Bianchi è di Firenze. (Mr. Bianchi is from Florence.) but Buon giorno, signor Bianchi. (Hello, Mr. Bianchi.)

59. Another important use of the definite article is with possessive adjectives: Ho perso il mio libro. (I lost my book.)

60. The indefinite article is omitted after the verbs essere and diventare before nouns that indicate religion, profession, marital status, or titles. Mario è dottore e Alfredo è avvocato. (Mario is a doctor and Alfredo is a lawyer.) Io sono cattolica e lui è protestante. (I am Catholic and he is a Protestant.)

61. It is also omitted after che in exclamations: Che bel uomo! (What a handsome man!) Che peccato! (What a shame!) The definite article is omitted after in with geographical terms if the terms are feminine and singular and not modified. L'Emilia-Romagna è in Italia. (Emilia-Romagna is in Italy.)

62. It is omitted with names of cities. Conosci Milano? (Do you know Milan?) Avete mai visto Sorrento? (Have you ever seen Sorrento?)

63. In some common expressions. a sinistra (to the left) a destra (to the right) in cima (on top)

64. PIACERE

65. Ti piace …..show pictures, ask partner

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