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Hua Yang and Kenneth Rose Signal Compression Lab ECE Department University of California Santa Barbara, USA Mar. 2005. Rate-Distortion Optimized Motion Estimation for Error Resilient Video Coding. Outline. Motion estimation (ME) for coding efficiency Conventional ME

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Hua Yang and Kenneth Rose

Signal Compression Lab

ECE Department

University of California Santa Barbara, USA

Mar. 2005

Rate-Distortion Optimized Motion Estimation for Error Resilient Video Coding

outline
Outline
  • Motion estimation (ME) for coding efficiency
    • Conventional ME
    • Rate-constrained ME & rate-distortion (RD) optimized ME
  • Motion estimation for error resilience
  • Proposed end-to-end distortion based RDME
    • Intuition behind
    • End-to-end distortion analysis
  • Simulation results
  • Conclusions

ICASSP 2005

motion estimation for coding efficiency

Coded frame n-1

Original frame n

Motion Estimation for Coding Efficiency
  • Motion compensated prediction (MCP)
    • To remove inherent temporal redundancy of video signal
    • Both the motion vector and the prediction residue are encoded.

ICASSP 2005

motion estimation for coding efficiency1
Motion Estimation for Coding Efficiency
  • Conventional motion estimation
    • ME Criterion: minimize prediction residue
      • Ignoring the motion vector bit-rate cost

ICASSP 2005

motion estimation for coding efficiency2

Rate-constrained motion estimation

: Lagrange multiplier

  • However, not yet the ultimate rate-distortion optimization for the best overall coding performance.
Motion Estimation for Coding Efficiency
  • Motion estimation in low bit rate video coding
    • In low bit rate video coding, motion vectors may occupy a significant portion of total bit rate.
  • Efficient bit allocation between motion vector and prediction residue coding is necessary for better overall coding efficiency.

ICASSP 2005

motion estimation for coding efficiency3
Motion Estimation for Coding Efficiency
  • Motion estimation for low bit rate video coding (cont’d)
    • Rate-distortion optimized motion estimation (RDME)
  • Some references
    • [Girod `94] Theoretical analysis of rate-constrained ME
    • [Sullivan `98] Summary of rate-constrained ME
    • [Chung `96] Low complexity RDME for each MB using RD modeling
    • [Schuster `97] Joint RDME for multiple MB’s

ICASSP 2005

motion estimation for error resilience

Error resilient video coding

    • RD optimization with end-to-end distortion
    • Coding mode selection: {Intra/Inter, QP}

No mv for Inter-mode!

Not comprehensively attack the RD optimization problem!

Motion Estimation for Error Resilience
  • In the presence of packet loss:
    • Packet loss & error propagation
      • Internet – no QoS guarantee

Wireless – inherent error-prone channel

      • Error propagation due to MCP
  • Error resilience via motion compensation
    • Multi-frame motion compensation (MFMC) [Budagavi `01]
    • Reference picture selection (RPS) [H.263+]
    • Error resilient rate-constrained ME [Wiegand `00]

ICASSP 2005

motion estimation for error resilience1
Motion Estimation for Error Resilience
  • We propose end-to-end distortion based RDME

[accounting for packet loss]

    • The exact RD optimal ME solution for error resilience
    • Critical:

accurate pixel-level end-to-end distortion estimation

      • Build on: recursive optimal per-pixel estimate (ROPE)

[R. Zhang, S. Regunathan, and K. Rose `00]

ICASSP 2005

proposed rdme

P1

I

P2

P3

P1

P2

P4

P1

I

For coding efficiency

For error resilience

Best trade-off

  • Conventional motion estimation completely ignores the error resilience information.
  • This error resilience information should be exactly considered for each pixel.
Proposed RDME
  • Intuition for “error resilience via ME”

ICASSP 2005

proposed rdme1

Error concealment

ROPE

Error propagated distortion

  • DEP is explicitly affected by mv, whose minimization favors mv’s that point to reference areas with less encoder-decoder mismatch.
Proposed RDME
  • ROPE-based end-to-end distortion analysis

ICASSP 2005

proposed rdme2

Packet loss impact

Proposed RDME
  • The proposed RDME solution
  • Comparing with existent RDME
    • Source coding distortion  end-to-end distortion
    • mv affects not only the Rmv vs. Rres trade-off, but also more importantly, the coding efficiency vs. error resilience trade-off.
  • Comparing with existent RD optimized coding mode selection
    • Extended Inter mode with the mv parameter
    • Further optimize the Inter-mode performance

ICASSP 2005

simulations
Simulations
  • Objective: to check upper-bound performance
    • Joint {mv, QP} optimization
    • RD calculation via actual encoding
  • Simulation settings
    • UBC H.263+
    • Encoding: I-P-P-……
    • Transmission: independent packet loss, with a uniform p
    • Decoding: 50 different packet loss realizations for each p
    • Performance: average luminance PSNR

ICASSP 2005

simulations1
Simulations
  • Simulation settings (cont’d)
    • Testing methods
      • Conventional ME (cME)
      • The proposed RDME (RDME)
    • Testing scenarios
      • Random Intra updating (rI):

arbitrarily assigns MB’s to 1/p groups, and cycles through them updating one group per frame.

      • Optimal Intra updating (oI):

RD optimized Intra/Inter mode selection.

ICASSP 2005

simulation results random intra
Simulation Results Random Intra

Miss_am

Foreman

PSNR vs. Packet loss rate

[QCIF, 10f/s, 48kb/s]

ICASSP 2005

simulation results optimal intra
Simulation Results Optimal Intra

Miss_am

Foreman

PSNR vs. Packet loss rate

[QCIF, 10f/s, 48kb/s]

ICASSP 2005

simulation results random intra1
Simulation Results Random Intra

Miss_am

Foreman

PSNR vs. Total bit rate

[QCIF, 10f/s, p=10%]

ICASSP 2005

simulation results optimal intra1
Simulation Results Optimal Intra

Miss_am

Foreman

PSNR vs. Total bit rate

[QCIF, 10f/s, p=10%]

ICASSP 2005

simulation results
Simulation Results

Conventional ME [29.58dB]

RDME

[33.83dB]

Miss_am: QCIF, 10f/s, 48kb/s, p=10%, random Intra

ICASSP 2005

simulation results1
Simulation Results

RDME

[26.92dB]

Conventional ME

[23.92dB]

Foreman: 1st 200f, QCIF, 10f/s, 112kb/s, p=10%, random Intra

ICASSP 2005

conclusions

Besides Intra updating, RDME presents another good alternative for error resilience.

Conclusions
  • Identify the new opportunity of achieving error resilience via motion estimation.
  • Propose an RD optimal ME solution, which further optimizes the Inter-mode performance.
  • Investigate the upper-bound performance.
    • With random Intra: substantial gain
    • With optimal Intra: significant gain at low bit rates.

ICASSP 2005

conclusions1
Conclusions
  • Originally, the power of Intra coded MB’s is only recognized as stopping past error propagation, while the proposed RDME reveals their new potential on reducing future error propagation.
  • Future work I: more comprehensive tests
    • Inaccurate p, bursty loss, or over actual networks, etc.
  • Future work II: complexity reduction
    • RD modeling, separate mv and QP optimization, sophisticated ME strategies, etc.

ICASSP 2005

references
References
  • [Girod `94] B. Girod, ``Rate-constrained motion estimation,\'\' Nov. 1994.
  • [Sullivan `98] G. J. Sullivan and T. Wiegand, ``Rate-distortion optimization for video compression,’’ Nov. 1998.
  • [Chung `96] W. C. Chung, F. Kossentini, and M. J. T. Smith, ``An efficient motion estimation technique based on a rate-distortion criterion,\'\' May 1996.
  • [Schuster `97] G. M. Schuster and A. K. Katsaggeslos, ``A theory for the optimal bit allocation between displacement vector field and displaced frame difference,\'\' Dec. 1997.
  • [Budagavi `01] M. Budagavi and J. D. Gibson, ``Multiframe video coding for improved performance over wireless channels,\'\' Feb. 2001.
  • [H.263+] ITU-T, Rec. H,263, ``Video codeing for low bitrate communications\'\', version 2 (H.263+), Jan. 1998.
  • [Wiegand `00] T. Wiegand, N. Farber, K. Stuhlmuller and B. Girod, ``Error-resilient video transmission using long-term memory motion-compensated prediction,\'\' June 2000.
  • [Zhang `00] R. Zhang, S. L. Regunathan, and K. Rose, ``Video coding with optimal intra/inter mode switching for packet loss resilience,\'\' June 2000.

ICASSP 2005

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The End

ICASSP 2005

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