ocial psychology. ** Influence of real, imagined, or implied presence of others. Conformity. 12.1 What factors influence people to conform to the actions of others?.
** Influence of real, imagined, or implied presence of others
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Source: Adapted from Asch (1956).
Occurs when a decision-making group feels that it is more important to maintain group unanimity and cohesiveness than to consider the facts realistically
Participants (“teachers”) were instructed to give electric shocks to another person (“learner”), who only pretended to be shocked.
65%obeyed until the end, even though many were upset by being asked to do so.
** Social facilitation: Positive influence of others on performance
Social impairment: Negative influence of others on performance
** Social loafing: When lazy person works in a group, that person often performs less well than if the person were working alone
“She is such a nice person.”
Components of Attitudes
I like country
music; it's fun
I thinkcountry music is better than any other kind of music.
I buy country music CDs every chance I get.
Attitude formation can be the result of several processes:
** Interaction with others
“I repeated gossip about my friend Chris.”
“I am a good, loyal friend.”
Impression formation:Forming of first knowledge about another person
Influenced by primacy effect
Part of social cognition
“He probably got caught in some bad traffic, and then he was late for a meeting.”
“He’s such a careless driver. He never watches out for other cars.”
Social cognitive theory
Social identity theory
Views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences
Source: Adapted from Sternberg (1986).
Source: Latané & Darley (1969).