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The Scramble for Africa. What were the motives of European colonizers during the scramble for Africa?. Exploration of Africa. 1. Europeans could not navigate the rivers of interior Africa. Mid 1800s: Africa was divided into various kingdoms

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The scramble for africa
The Scramble for Africa

  • What were the motives of European colonizers during the scramble for Africa?


Exploration of africa
Exploration of Africa

1. Europeans could not navigate the rivers of interior Africa

  • Mid 1800s: Africa was divided into various kingdoms

  • European countries controlled a few coastlines (10%) – Why?

2. Lack of interest keep Europeans out of interior Africa

  • Steam engine, made it possible for Europeans to navigate interior rivers

  • David Livingstone explore interior Africa, interest rises

  • Livingstone’s goal to convert Africans to Christianity

  • Livingstone disappears. American newspaper hires Henry Stanley to try to find him


  • Explorations attract the interest of Belgian King Leopold II

  • King Leopold hires Stanley to help obtain land in the Congo

  • Leopold wants minerals & rubber in the region but says he wants to convert Africans to Christianity

  • 10 million Africans die due to abuses during Leopold’s rule

  • Belgian Gov takes Congo from Leopold, becomes Belgian Congo

  • Rest of Europe want a land in Africa, mad scramble begins


Mad Scramble for Africa Political Cartoon

Portugal

Spain

Italy

Germany

France

Belgium

Britain

1. Identify the people in the cartoon

2. Identify the action in the cartoon

Netherlands


Berlin conference
Berlin Conference

  • The discovery of diamonds and gold intensify the scramble

  • European countries feared war could break out over Africa

  • 1884: to prevent conflict, European nations meet at the Berlin Conference to lay down rules for the colonization of Africa

  • Most powerful countries would claim areas they wanted first

  • African leaders or people are not consulted


4) Missionaries wanted to convert Africa to Christianity

  • Why Does Imperialism happen in Africa?

    1) Europeans want raw materials for their factories + new markets

    2) Wanted to gain new colonies for national pride/power

    3) Racism & Social Darwinism (survival of fittest applies to humans)

  • How does Imperialism happen in Africa?

1) Technological advances: weapons, steam engine, medicine communications

2) Variety of cultures and languages keep Africans disunified

  • How does this effect Africans?

1. Cash crops instead of “food” crops – causes famine

2. Different ethnic groups forced together into a country


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