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Mammalian Muscle Properties. Madden et al. IEEE J. Oceanic Engr. 29: 706, 2004. Skeletal muscle features. Muscle surpasses artificial actuators only in the fuel delivery Linear actuation Adapted for intermittent duty and stiffness (compliance) control

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Mammalian muscle properties
Mammalian Muscle Properties

Madden et al. IEEE J. Oceanic Engr. 29: 706, 2004


Skeletal muscle features
Skeletal muscle features

  • Muscle surpasses artificial actuators only in the fuel delivery

  • Linear actuation

  • Adapted for intermittent duty and stiffness (compliance) control

  • Versatile force control: recruitment + stiffness modulation (w/o feedback)

Madden et al. IEEE J. Oceanic Engr. 29: 706, 2004




Mck muscles
McK muscles

  • Steel braid wrapped around a rubber tube.

  • Crimped at ends





Friction in the mesh
Friction in the mesh

  • Filament on filament friction (no sliding relative to the tube)


Properties of mck muscles
Properties of McK muscles

  • 1. Fstatic~ CSA (pro2)

  • 2. Fstatic~ P

  • 3. Fstatic is independent of initial length

  • 4. Fstaticmax~ 1/ao

  • 5. Fstatic ~ 1/e


Molecular springs ratchets
Molecular Springs & Ratchets

  • Spasmoneme of the Vorticella

  • Acrosome

  • Actin polymerization

Mahdevan, L : Science, 288: 95, 2000.



Actin spring
Actin Spring

  • Acrosome needs to penetrate egg jelly.

  • Spring is super-coiled- held twisted by scruin.

  • Ca++ Ds scruin


Supramolecular ratchets
Supramolecular ratchets

  • Pawl and ratchet analogy of actin polymerization

  • How controlled? In quiescence, profilin is the shut-off switch. Stimulus such as pH D in presence of actin monomers can start.

  • Listeriaridesthis bus



Conducting polymers
Conducting polymers

  • Large molecular deformations (strains) induced by current

  • Reversible Change in oxidation state



How does muscle fatigue
How does muscle fatigue?

  • Test of a ‘skinned’ muscle fiber from EDL of rat.

  • Can activate by direct stimulation of any step in the cascade.

Pederson, TH: Science 305: 1144, 2004


F1 atpase a rotary motor
F1 ATPase: A rotary motor

  • Can either make or break ATP, hence is reversible

  • Torque of 40 pN-nM; work in 1/3 rev. is 80 pn-nM (40 * 2p/3) equivalent to free energy from ATP hydrolysis

  • Can see rotation by attaching an actin filament


Rotary cellular motors
Rotary Cellular Motors

  • The rotary mechanism of ATP synthase , Stock D, Gibbons C, Arechaga I, Leslie AGW, Walker JECURRENT OPINION IN STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY ,10 (6): 672-679 DEC 2000

  • 2. ATP synthase - A marvellous rotary engine of the cell, Yoshida M, Muneyuki E, Hisabori TNATURE REVIEWS MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY 2 (9): 669-677 SEP 2001

  • 3. The gamma subunit in chloroplast F-1-ATPase can rotate in a unidirectional and counter-clockwise manner Hisabori T, Kondoh A, Yoshida M FEBS LETTERS 463 (1-2): 35-38 DEC 10 1999

  • 4. Constructing nanomechanical devices powered by biomolecular motors.C. Montemagno, G Bachand, Nanotechnology 10: 225-2312, 1999.



Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology2; 669-677 (2001)ATP SYNTHASE — A MARVELLOUS ROTARY ENGINE OF THE CELL

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  • When L>> x, the chain has many bends and is always crumpled in solution – the FJC model applies, with each link approximated as 2 x, and perfectly flexible joints.

  • To count all possible curved states in a smooth-bending rod in solution- it’s a WLC- supercoiling is possible.


F1 atpase a rotary motor1
F1 ATPase: A rotary motor

  • Can either make or break ATP, hence is reversible

  • Torque of 40 pN-nM; work in 1/3 rev. is 80 pn-nM (40 * 2p/3) equivalent to free energy from ATP hydrolysis

  • Can see rotation by attaching an actin filament


(www.sciencemag.org/feature/data/1049155.shl).


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