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Mammalian Muscle Properties. Madden et al. IEEE J. Oceanic Engr. 29: 706, 2004. Skeletal muscle features. Muscle surpasses artificial actuators only in the fuel delivery Linear actuation Adapted for intermittent duty and stiffness (compliance) control

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mammalian muscle properties
Mammalian Muscle Properties

Madden et al. IEEE J. Oceanic Engr. 29: 706, 2004

skeletal muscle features
Skeletal muscle features
  • Muscle surpasses artificial actuators only in the fuel delivery
  • Linear actuation
  • Adapted for intermittent duty and stiffness (compliance) control
  • Versatile force control: recruitment + stiffness modulation (w/o feedback)

Madden et al. IEEE J. Oceanic Engr. 29: 706, 2004

mck muscles
McK muscles
  • Steel braid wrapped around a rubber tube.
  • Crimped at ends
friction in the mesh
Friction in the mesh
  • Filament on filament friction (no sliding relative to the tube)
properties of mck muscles
Properties of McK muscles
  • 1. Fstatic~ CSA (pro2)
  • 2. Fstatic~ P
  • 3. Fstatic is independent of initial length
  • 4. Fstaticmax~ 1/ao
  • 5. Fstatic ~ 1/e
molecular springs ratchets
Molecular Springs & Ratchets
  • Spasmoneme of the Vorticella
  • Acrosome
  • Actin polymerization

Mahdevan, L : Science, 288: 95, 2000.

actin spring
Actin Spring
  • Acrosome needs to penetrate egg jelly.
  • Spring is super-coiled- held twisted by scruin.
  • Ca++ Ds scruin
supramolecular ratchets
Supramolecular ratchets
  • Pawl and ratchet analogy of actin polymerization
  • How controlled? In quiescence, profilin is the shut-off switch. Stimulus such as pH D in presence of actin monomers can start.
  • Listeriaridesthis bus
conducting polymers
Conducting polymers
  • Large molecular deformations (strains) induced by current
  • Reversible Change in oxidation state
how does muscle fatigue
How does muscle fatigue?
  • Test of a ‘skinned’ muscle fiber from EDL of rat.
  • Can activate by direct stimulation of any step in the cascade.

Pederson, TH: Science 305: 1144, 2004

f1 atpase a rotary motor
F1 ATPase: A rotary motor
  • Can either make or break ATP, hence is reversible
  • Torque of 40 pN-nM; work in 1/3 rev. is 80 pn-nM (40 * 2p/3) equivalent to free energy from ATP hydrolysis
  • Can see rotation by attaching an actin filament
rotary cellular motors
Rotary Cellular Motors
  • The rotary mechanism of ATP synthase , Stock D, Gibbons C, Arechaga I, Leslie AGW, Walker JECURRENT OPINION IN STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY ,10 (6): 672-679 DEC 2000
  • 2. ATP synthase - A marvellous rotary engine of the cell, Yoshida M, Muneyuki E, Hisabori TNATURE REVIEWS MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY 2 (9): 669-677 SEP 2001
  • 3. The gamma subunit in chloroplast F-1-ATPase can rotate in a unidirectional and counter-clockwise manner Hisabori T, Kondoh A, Yoshida M FEBS LETTERS 463 (1-2): 35-38 DEC 10 1999
  • 4. Constructing nanomechanical devices powered by biomolecular motors.C. Montemagno, G Bachand, Nanotechnology 10: 225-2312, 1999.
slide36

Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology2; 669-677 (2001)ATP SYNTHASE — A MARVELLOUS ROTARY ENGINE OF THE CELL

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When L>> x, the chain has many bends and is always crumpled in solution – the FJC model applies, with each link approximated as 2 x, and perfectly flexible joints.
  • To count all possible curved states in a smooth-bending rod in solution- it’s a WLC- supercoiling is possible.
f1 atpase a rotary motor1
F1 ATPase: A rotary motor
  • Can either make or break ATP, hence is reversible
  • Torque of 40 pN-nM; work in 1/3 rev. is 80 pn-nM (40 * 2p/3) equivalent to free energy from ATP hydrolysis
  • Can see rotation by attaching an actin filament
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