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Chapter 10 Maintaining Behavior Changes. Relapses in Behavior. behavior can regress after goals have been attained a relapse is an extended return to original patterns of behavior relapse often occurs when commitment is low relapses can follow many types of treatment. Why Relapses Occur.

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relapses in behavior
Relapses in Behavior

behavior can regress after goals have been attained

  • a relapse is an extended return to original patterns of behavior
  • relapse often occurs when commitment is low
  • relapses can follow many types of treatment
why relapses occur
Why Relapses Occur
  • relapses may occur when one encounters antecedents associated with the problem behavior
  • relapses are more likely if the new behavior is not firmly established
  • self-efficacy factors may play a role in relapses
thinning reinforcement
Thinning Reinforcement

help prevent relapse by thinning reinforcement

  • thinning is accomplished by applying schedules of reinforcement
  • schedules of reinforcement reduce the number of responses reinforced or increase the time interval between reinforcers
  • thinning should be introduced gradually enough to prevent extinction
schedules of reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • intermittent reinforcement schedules reinforce only some behaviors
  • ratio schedules reinforce based on the number of responses that occur
    • fixed-ratio schedules define a constant number of required responses
    • variable-ratio schedules vary the number of responses that must occur
schedules of reinforcement continued
Schedules of Reinforcement (continued)
  • interval schedules reinforce the first response after a period of time has passed
    • fixed-interval schedules reinforce the first response after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcer was delivered
    • variable-interval schedules reinforce the first response after varying periods of time since the last reinforcer was delivered
schedules of reinforcement continued7
Schedules of Reinforcement (continued)
  • duration schedules require that a behavior occur for a period of time before being reinforced
  • schedules can be combined to create more complex schedules of reinforcement
effects of ratio schedules
Effects of Ratio Schedules
  • ratio schedules maintain high rates of responding
  • variable-ratio schedules maintain higher rates than fixed-ratio schedules
  • Fixed-ratio schedules maintain a post-reinforcement pause
  • generally, as response requirements increase, so do rates of responding
  • too high a requirement causes ratio strain
effects of interval schedules
Effects of Interval Schedules
  • interval schedules maintain moderate rates of responding
  • fixed-interval schedules maintain rates that accelerate through each interval
  • variable interval schedules maintain consistent, moderate rates through each interval
  • fixed-interval schedules maintain a “scalloped” pattern of responding
intermittent reinforcement and extinction
Intermittent Reinforcement and Extinction
  • extinction seems to create greater resistance to extinction than CRF
  • animal research by Nevin suggests the opposite is true
  • variable schedules are more resistant to extinction than fixed schedules of reinforcement
delaying reinforcement
Delaying Reinforcement
  • delays in reinforcement interfere with acquisition of behavior
  • after a behavior is established, the introduction of brief delays may serve to strengthen behavior
  • such delays make behavior more resistant to extinction
increasing natural reinforcement applying natural reinforcers
Increasing Natural Reinforcement: Applying Natural Reinforcers

reinforcers that naturally occur in the individual\'s life assist in the transition from treatment to the real world

  • assess available reinforcers in the individual\'s everyday environment
  • social reinforcers such as praise are a class of common real-world reinforcers
increasing natural reinforcement applying natural reinforcers continued
Increasing Natural Reinforcement: Applying Natural Reinforcers (continued)
  • seek environments that provide opportunities to successfully engage in acquired skills
  • increase likelihood that appropriate consequences are available to maintain the new skills
increasing natural reinforcers training
Increasing Natural Reinforcers: Training

when the environment can not support the new behavior, the individual and those in the environment can be taught more appropriate responses

  • target individuals can be trained to find ways to be reinforced
  • in some environments, others can be taught to use tokens and social reinforcers
  • in some environments, others can be trained in behavioral techniques
training with everyday antecedents
Training with Everyday Antecedents

intervention and natural conditions should be made more similar

  • fade prompts that will not be present in the natural environment
  • conduct some of the treatment in the natural environment
  • bring aspects of the natural environment into the therapy setting
widening stimulus control
Widening Stimulus Control

steps that widen stimulus control tend to promote generalization

  • increase the variety of individuals, materials, or settings
  • general case training is a more formalized approach to widening stimulus control
    • specify the exact situation in which behavior should occur after training
widening stimulus control continued
Widening Stimulus Control (continued)
    • identify a range of teaching examples that reflect the natural settings where behavior should occur
    • teach the examples
  • general case training is one of the most effective generalization procedures
enhancing self regulation skills
Enhancing Self-Regulation Skills

enhancement of self-regulation skills may best promote generalization

  • self-regulation skills help in generalization of social skills
  • self-regulation skills help in reduction of fears
general procedures to enhance generalization
General Procedures to Enhance Generalization

generalization programs can benefit from a combination of:

  • fading prompts
  • widening stimulus control
  • thinning reinforcement
  • self-regulation training
posttreatment programs
Posttreatment Programs
  • booster programs offer refresher sessions
  • Marlatt\'s lapse prevention method teaches relapse prevention in three steps:
    • learn to identify high-risk situations
    • acquire coping skills
    • practice coping skills in high-risk settings
tips on maintaining behavior change
Tips on Maintaining Behavior Change
  • focus interventions on behavior that will be useful in the person\'s natural environment
  • associate new behaviors with antecedents common to the natural environment
  • monitor behavior carefully when introducing new treatments
  • thin to a variable schedule of reinforcement
tips on maintaining behavior change continued
Tips on Maintaining Behavior Change (continued)
  • assess potential natural reinforcers prior to completion of intervention
  • target behaviors should be applicable to everyday life
ad